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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:59:14 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:25 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0618
Identification
Common NameAcenaphthylene
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAcenaphthylene is one of over 100 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning organic substances, such as fossil fuels. They are usually found as a mixture containing two or more of these compounds. (4)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Food Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Acenaphthalene
Acenaphthylene solution
Cyclopenta(de)naphthalene
Cyclopenta[de]naphthalene
Chemical FormulaC12H8
Average Molecular Mass152.192 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass152.063 g/mol
CAS Registry Number208-96-8
IUPAC Nameacenaphthylene
Traditional Nameacenaphthylene
SMILESC1=CC2=C3C1=CC=CC3=CC=C2
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H8/c1-3-9-4-2-6-11-8-7-10(5-1)12(9)11/h1-8H
InChI KeyInChIKey=HXGDTGSAIMULJN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acenaphthylenes. These are aromatic polycyclic compounds containing an acenaphthylene moiety. Acenaphthylene is a carbotricyclic compound, consisting of a naphthalene with positions C1 and C8 connected by an ethylene bridge.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassAcenaphthylenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAcenaphthylenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acenaphthylene
  • Naphthalene
  • Aromatic hydrocarbon
  • Polycyclic hydrocarbon
  • Cyclic olefin
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Olefin
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point92.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0161 mg/mL at 25°C [WALTERS,RW & LUTHY,RG (1984A)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0015 g/LALOGPS
logP3.9ALOGPS
logP3.33ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity51.9 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.1 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-a7d4af1f29212902e70fJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-f39082732ce28a84c700JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-f39082732ce28a84c700JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-f39082732ce28a84c700JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-bbbc6ccfca4c6af33619JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-bbbc6ccfca4c6af33619JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-bbbc6ccfca4c6af33619JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-fa23e3482c2e552a1679JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-fa23e3482c2e552a1679JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-81bf32b94f3f52af02c9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-a0f09305b79f9aa2e36bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-a0f09305b79f9aa2e36bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-a0f09305b79f9aa2e36bJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0udi-2900000000-8fe3cda3c4bf54e8f710JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe ability of PAH's to bind to blood proteins such as albumin allows them to be transported throughout the body. Many PAH's induce the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor or glycine N-methyltransferase protein. These enzymes metabolize PAH's into their toxic intermediates. The reactive metabolites of PAHs (epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations) covalently bind to DNA and other cellular macromolecules, initiating mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (4, 5, 2, 3)
MetabolismPAH metabolism occurs in all tissues, usually by cytochrome P-450 and its associated enzymes. PAHs are metabolized into reactive intermediates, which include epoxide intermediates, dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, and their various combinations. The phenols, quinones, and dihydrodiols can all be conjugated to glucuronides and sulfate esters; the quinones also form glutathione conjugates. (4)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1700 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (6) LD50: 1760 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Acenaphthylene is found in creosotes, which are probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). (7)
Uses/SourcesPAHs are released into the environment via the combustion of fossil fuels, coke oven emissions and vehicle exhausts, as well as naturally from forest fires and vocanic eruptions. PAHs from these sources may contaminate nearly water systems. They are also found in coal tar and charbroiled food. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPAHs are carcinogens and have been associated with the increased risk of skin, respiratory tract, bladder, stomach, and kidney cancers. They may also cause reproductive effects and depress the immune system. (4)
SymptomsAcute exposure to PAHs causes irritation and inflammation of the skin and lung tissue. (1)
TreatmentThere is no know antidote for PAHs. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (4)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID9161
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL2132328
ChemSpider ID8807
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID33081
BioCyc ID--TRANS-ACENAPHTHENE-12-DIOL
CTD IDC042553
Stitch IDAcenaphthylene
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6349
Wikipedia LinkAcenaphthylene
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0618.pdf
General References
  1. Santodonato J, Howard P, Basu D: Health and ecological assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1981 Sep;5(1):1-364. [7310260 ]
  2. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  3. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
  6. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2003). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for acenaphthylene. [Link]
  7. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
2. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Glycine n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial role in the regulation of tissue concentration of AdoMet and of metabolism of methionine.
Gene Name:
GNMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14749
Molecular Weight:
32742.0 Da
References
  1. Uno S, Dragin N, Miller ML, Dalton TP, Gonzalez FJ, Nebert DW: Basal and inducible CYP1 mRNA quantitation and protein localization throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Feb 15;44(4):570-83. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [17997381 ]
  2. Padros J, Pelletier E: In vivo formation of (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide-plasma albumin adducts in fish. Mar Environ Res. 2000 Jul-Dec;50(1-5):347-51. [11460716 ]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1995). Toxicological profile for PAHs. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Benzopyrene. Last Updated 22 January 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element.
Gene Name:
NR1I3
Uniprot ID:
Q14994
Molecular Weight:
39942.145 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.25 uMATG_CAR_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]