Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-21 01:08:19 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:28 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0646
Identification
Common NameBeryllium hydroxide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionBeryllium hydroxide is a hydroxide of beryllium. Beryllium is a lightweight alkaline earth metal with the atomic number 4. It is a relatively rare element found naturally only combined with other elements in minerals. (3)
Compound Type
  • Beryllium Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Beryllium dihydroxide
Beryllium hydrate
beryllium(2+) hydroxide
Beryllium(II) hydroxide
Hydrated beryllia
Chemical FormulaBeH2O2
Average Molecular Mass43.027 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass43.018 g/mol
CAS Registry Number13327-32-7
IUPAC Nameberyllium(2+) ion dihydroxide
Traditional Nameberyllium(2+) ion dihydroxide
SMILES[Be++].[OH-].[OH-]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Be.2H2O/h;2*1H2/q+2;;/p-2
InChI KeyInChIKey=WPJWIROQQFWMMK-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkaline earth metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkaline earth metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassAlkaline earth metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassAlkaline earth metal hydroxides
Direct ParentAlkaline earth metal hydroxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaline earth metal hydroxide
  • Inorganic beryllium salt
  • Inorganic hydride
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointDecomposes at 1000°C.
Boiling Point300°C
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity13.91 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability1.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityOnce in the body, beryllium acts as a hapten and interacts with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DP presenting cells in the lungs, becoming physically associated with a major histocompatability (MHC) class II molecule. This MHC class II-beryllium-peptide complex is recognized by the T lymphocyte receptor, triggering CD4+ T lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The resulting inflammatory response is a cell-mediated process orchestrated by cytokines and results in the formation of (usually pulmonary) granulomas. Beryllium's toxicity may be controlled by the iron-storage protein ferritin, which sequesters beryllium by binding it and preventing it from interacting with other enzymes. (4, 1, 2)
MetabolismBeryllium is absorbed mainly through the lungs, where it enters the bloodstream and is transported throughout the body by binding to prealbumins and gamma-globulins. Beryllium accumulates in lung tissue and the skeleton. It is excreted mainly in the urine. (4)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)1, carcinogenic to humans. (6)
Uses/SourcesBeryllium hydroxide is mainly used to produce beryllium metal and alloys (7).
Minimum Risk LevelChronic Oral: 0.002 mg/kg/day (5)
Health EffectsAcute inhalation of a high level of beryllium can results in a pneumonia-like condition called acute beryllium disease. Chronic inhalation of beryllium can caused an inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system called chronic beryllium disease. Chronic beryllium disease may result in anorexia and weight loss, as well as right side heart enlargement and heart disease in advanced cases. Chronic exposure can also increase the risk of lung cancer. Skin contact with beryllium results in contact dermatitus. (3, 4)
SymptomsChronic beryllium disease causes fatigue, weakness, difficulty breathing, and a persistent dry cough. (3, 4)
TreatmentChronic beryllium disease is treated with immunosuppressive medicines, usually of the glucocorticoid class. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID25879
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID35102
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC042156
Stitch IDBeryllium hydroxide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBeryllium_hydroxide
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0646.pdf
General References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. Lindenschmidt RC, Sendelbach LE, Witschi HP, Price DJ, Fleming J, Joshi JG: Ferritin and in vivo beryllium toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Feb;82(2):344-50. [3945960 ]
  3. Wikipedia. Beryllium. Last Updated 17 March 2009. [Link]
  4. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  7. Freebase (2009). Beryllium Hydroxide. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Gene Name:
HLA-DPA1
Uniprot ID:
P20036
Molecular Weight:
29380.345 Da
References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Gene Name:
HLA-DPB1
Uniprot ID:
P04440
Molecular Weight:
29159.195 Da
References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL, leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.
Gene Name:
HLA-DPB1
Uniprot ID:
P04440
Molecular Weight:
29159.195 Da
References
  1. Amicosante M, Berretta F, Dweik R, Saltini C: Role of high-affinity HLA-DP specific CLIP-derived peptides in beryllium binding to the HLA-DPGlu69 berylliosis-associated molecules and presentation to beryllium-sensitized T cells. Immunology. 2009 Sep;128(1 Suppl):e462-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.03000.x. Epub 2008 Dec 23. [19191908 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2002). Toxicological profile for beryllium. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]