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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-17 23:53:02 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:22:58 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0943
Identification
Common NameCarbetamide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCarbetamide is a carbamate pesticide. Carbamate pesticides are derived from carbamic acid and kill insects in a similar fashion as organophosphate insecticides. They are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. The first carbamate, carbaryl, was introduced in 1956 and more of it has been used throughout the world than all other carbamates combined. Because of carbaryl's relatively low mammalian oral and dermal toxicity and broad control spectrum, it has had wide use in lawn and garden settings. Most of the carbamates are extremely toxic to Hymenoptera, and precautions must be taken to avoid exposure to foraging bees or parasitic wasps. Some of the carbamates are translocated within plants, making them an effective systemic treatment. (3)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Carbamate
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(Phenylcarbamoyloxy)-2-N-ethylpropionamide
(R)-N-Ethyl-2-(((phenylamino)carbonyl)oxy)propanamide
1-(Ethylcarbamoyl)ethyl phenylcarbamate
2-(Ethylamino)-1-methyl-2-oxoethyl phenylcarbamate
2-Phenyl-carbamoyloxy-N-aethyl-propionamid
Carbetamex
Carbetamid
Carbethamide
D-(-)-1-(Ethylcarbamoyl)ethyl phenylcarbamate
D-n-ethylacetamide carbanilate
D-n-ethyllactamide carbanilate
D-n-ethyllactamide carbanilate (ester)
Legurame
N-Phenyl-1-(ethylcarbamoyl-1)-ethylcarbamate, D isomer
Chemical FormulaC12H16N2O3
Average Molecular Mass236.267 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass236.116 g/mol
CAS Registry Number16118-49-3
IUPAC Name1-(ethylcarbamoyl)ethyl N-phenylcarbamate
Traditional Namecarbetamide
SMILESCCNC(=O)C(C)OC(=O)NC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H16N2O3/c1-3-13-11(15)9(2)17-12(16)14-10-7-5-4-6-8-10/h4-9H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,13,15)(H,14,16)
InChI KeyInChIKey=AMRQXHFXNZFDCH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as phenylcarbamic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of phenylcarbamic acids.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassBenzenoids
Sub ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Direct ParentPhenylcarbamic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylcarbamic acid ester
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point119.0°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility3.5 mg/mL at 20°C [TOMLIN,C (1994)]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.566 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.62ALOGPS
logP1.65ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.98ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.43 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity64.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.04 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (2) ; oral (2); dermal (2)
Mechanism of ToxicityCarbetamide is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Carbamates form unstable complexes with chlolinesterases by carbamoylation of the active sites of the enzymes. This inhibition is reversible. A cholinesterase inhibitor suppresses the action of acetylcholine esterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholine esterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop.
MetabolismThe carbamates are hydrolyzed enzymatically by the liver; degradation products are excreted by the kidneys and the liver. (2)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesCarbetamide is widely used as an insecticide or pesticide in homes, gardens and agricultural applications. It is a synthetic compound.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Chronically high (>10 years) exposure leads to neuropsychological consequences including disturbances in perception and visuo-motor processing (1).
SymptomsAs with organophosphates, the signs and symptoms are based on excessive cholinergic stimulation. Unlike organophosphate poisoning, carbamate poisonings tend to be of shorter duration because the inhibition of nervous tissue acetylcholinesterase is reversible, and carbamates are more rapidly metabolized. Muscle weakness, dizziness, sweating and slight body discomfort are commonly reported early symptoms. Headache, salivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea are often prominent at higher levels of exposure. Contraction of the pupils with blurred vision, incoordination, muscle twitching and slurred speech have been reported. (3)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID443067
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC11075
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDCarbetamide
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0943.pdf
General References
  1. Roldan-Tapia L, Nieto-Escamez FA, del Aguila EM, Laynez F, Parron T, Sanchez-Santed F: Neuropsychological sequelae from acute poisoning and long-term exposure to carbamate and organophosphate pesticides. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006 Nov-Dec;28(6):694-703. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [17029710 ]
  2. IPCS Intox Database (1987). Antimony pentoxide. [Link]
  3. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Fishel F (2009). Pesticide Toxicity Profile: Carbamate Pesticides. University of Florida, IFAS Extension. [Link]