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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-24 17:05:52 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:03 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2011
Identification
Common Name2,3,3',4,4',5'-Hexabromobiphenyl
ClassSmall Molecule
Description2,3,3',4,4',5'-Hexabromobiphenyl is a polybrominated biphenyl. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are a group of 209 synthetic organic compounds with 1-10 bromine atoms attached to biphenyl. They can be used as flame retardants and may be added to the plastics used to make products like computer monitors, televisions, textiles, and plastic foams to make them difficult to burn. However, the use of PBBs is banned or restricted in most areas due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment. (3, 4)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Bromide Compound
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organobromide
  • Polybrominated Biphenyl
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Biphenyl, hexabromo- (technical grade)
Firemaster BP 6
Firemaster BP-6
Hexabromobiphenyl (technical grade)
Chemical FormulaC12H4Br6
Average Molecular Mass627.584 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass621.541 g/mol
CAS Registry Number84303-47-9
IUPAC Name1,2,3-tribromo-4-(3,4,5-tribromophenyl)benzene
Traditional Name1,2,3-tribromo-4-(3,4,5-tribromophenyl)benzene
SMILESBrC1=CC=C(C(Br)=C1Br)C1=CC(Br)=C(Br)C(Br)=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H4Br6/c13-7-2-1-6(10(16)12(7)18)5-3-8(14)11(17)9(15)4-5/h1-4H
InChI KeyInChIKey=PCEAPJVBSINMNW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as polybrominated biphenyls. These are organic aromatic compounds containing a biphenyl moiety, which is substituted at two or more ring positions by a bromine atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBiphenyls and derivatives
Direct ParentPolybrominated biphenyls
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Polybrominated biphenyl
  • Halobenzene
  • Bromobenzene
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl bromide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organobromide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless to white powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.2e-05 g/LALOGPS
logP7.26ALOGPS
logP8.23ChemAxon
logS-7.2ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity96.93 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.15 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0000009000-70811862ebb3ef649a66JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0000009000-70811862ebb3ef649a66JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-0000009000-bfe2919f618eec5eeabcJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0000009000-c922e82d6eeeb69d32dfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-0000009000-c922e82d6eeeb69d32dfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-0000109000-2613edd0fa591e48cc6eJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation (3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityThe exact mechanism of toxicty of PBBs varies depending on the specific congener. The predominant interaction is believed to involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). PBBs bind to and activate the AhR, which in turn initiates the transcriptional upregulation of a number of genes, affecting biochemical and endocrine pathways, cell cycle regulation, morphogenesis, oxidative stress response, and various other processes. This results in the numerous toxic responses characteristic of PBBs. Some of the known induced genes include the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. (3)
MetabolismPBBs can be absorbed via oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Due to their lipophilic nature, PBBs, especially the highly brominated congeners, tend to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues such as the liver, adipose, skin, and breast milk. Certain PBB compounds are metabolized by the microsomal monooxygenase system catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 of the type induced by phenobarbital. The rate of metabolism may depends on the bromine substitution pattern. PBB congeners of low bromine content are transformed into hydroxylated derivatives that are predominately eliminated in the urine. Highly brominated congeners are either retained or excreted unchanged in the feces. (3)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. (2)
Uses/SourcesPBBs can be used as flame retardants and may be added to the plastics used to make products like computer monitors, televisions, textiles, and plastic foams to make them difficult to burn. However, the use of PBBs is banned or restricted in most areas due to their toxicity and persistence in the environment. (3, 4)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 0.01 mg/kg/day (1)
Health EffectsPBB exposure may cause weight loss, skin disorders (such as acne), nervous and immune systems effects, and effects on the liver, kidneys, and thyroid gland. (3)
SymptomsSymptoms of PBB exposure may include nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, joint pain, fatigue, and weakness. (4)
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID158629
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID139544
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch ID2,3,3',4,4',5'-Hexabromobiphenyl
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBBs and PBDEs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Polybrominated biphenyl. Last Updated 9 June 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBBs and PBDEs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Samuelsen M, Olsen C, Holme JA, Meussen-Elholm E, Bergmann A, Hongslo JK: Estrogen-like properties of brominated analogs of bisphenol A in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2001;17(3):139-51. [11693576 ]
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name:
TTR
Uniprot ID:
P02766
Molecular Weight:
15886.88 Da
References
  1. Meerts IA, van Zanden JJ, Luijks EA, van Leeuwen-Bol I, Marsh G, Jakobsson E, Bergman A, Brouwer A: Potent competitive interactions of some brominated flame retardants and related compounds with human transthyretin in vitro. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Jul;56(1):95-104. [10869457 ]