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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-24 17:37:25 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:13 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2088
Identification
Common Name1,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
ClassSmall Molecule
Description1,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is one of 75 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) congeners. CDDs are a class of manufactured chemicals that consist of dioxin skeletel structures with chlorine substituents. They are also persistent organic pollutants (POPs), thus their production is regulated in most areas. Dioxins occur as by-products from the manufacture of organochlorides, the bleaching of paper, chlorination by waste and drinking water treatment plants, municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators, and natural sources such as volcanoes and forest fires. (3, 4)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin
  • Ether
  • Industrial By-product/Pollutant
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,2,7,9-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin
1,2,7,9-Tetrachlorooxanthrene
1,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-4-dioxin
1,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin
1,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
1,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
Dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,7,9-tetrachloro
Chemical FormulaC12H4Cl4O2
Average Molecular Mass321.971 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass319.897 g/mol
CAS Registry Number50585-46-1
IUPAC Name1,3,7,8-tetrachlorooxanthrene
Traditional Nametetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxins
SMILESClC1=CC(Cl)=C2OC3=CC(Cl)=C(Cl)C=C3OC2=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H4Cl4O2/c13-5-1-8(16)12-11(2-5)17-9-3-6(14)7(15)4-10(9)18-12/h1-4H
InChI KeyInChIKey=VPTDIAYLYJBYQG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. These are organic compounds containing a chlorine atom attached to a dibenzo-p-dioxin moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzodioxins
Sub ClassBenzo-p-dioxins
Direct ParentChlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Chlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxin
  • Diaryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point194°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00039 g/LALOGPS
logP6.55ALOGPS
logP5.42ChemAxon
logS-5.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area18.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity71.7 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability28.58 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0009000000-e3eb45c3b5e65ee326abJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0009000000-146db77c71fbd1481b13JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0api-7295000000-c68eba45aef8fc3c76c2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0009000000-6d8afb28fd8cfc121565JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0009000000-6d8afb28fd8cfc121565JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-0009000000-5e30990e6a63948544d3JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00di-1339000000-05bd0b51afa47cf0dddfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (3) ; inhalation(3) ; dermal (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityCDDs cause their toxic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and subsequently altering the trascription of certain genes. The affinity for the Ah receptor depends on the structure of the specific CDD. The change in gene expression may result from the direct interaction of the Ah receptor and its heterodimer-forming partner, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, with gene regulatory elements or the initiation of a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cascade that subsequently activates other transcription factors. The affected genes include several oncogenes, growth factors, receptors, hormones, and drug-metabolizing enzymes. The change in transcription/translation of these genes is believed to be the cause of most of the toxic effects of CDDs. (3)
MetabolismCDDs are absorbed through oral, inhalation, and dermal routes of exposure. CDDs are carried in the plasma by serum lipids and lipoproteins, distributing mainly to the liver and adipose tissue. CDDs are very slowly metabolized by the microsomal monooxygenase system to polar metabolites that can undergo conjugation with glucuronic acid and glutathione. They may increase the rate of their own metabolism by inducing both phase I and phase II enzymes. The major routes of excretion of CDDs are the bile and the faeces, though smaller amounts are excreted in the urine and via lactation. (3)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (2)
Uses/SourcesDioxins occur as by-products from the manufacture of organochlorides, the bleaching of paper, chlorination by waste and drinking water treatment plants, municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators, and natural sources such as volcanoes and forest fires. (3, 4)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 0.0002 ug/kg/day (1) Intermediate Oral: 0.00002 ug/kg/day (1) Chronic Oral: 0.000001 ug/kg/day (1)
Health EffectsExposure to large amounts of CDDs causes chloracne, a severe skin disease with acne-like lesions that occur mainly on the face and upper body. CDDs may also cause liver damage and induce long-term alterations in glucose metabolism and subtle changes in hormonal levels. In addition, studies have shown that CDDs may disrupt the endocrine system and weaken the immune system, as well as cause reproductive damage and birth defects, central and peripheral nervous system pathology, thyroid disorders, endometriosis, and diabetes. (3, 4)
SymptomsIn addition to chloracne, CDD exposure causes skin rashes, discoloration, and excessive body hair. (3)
TreatmentTreatment of CDD exposure may include washing the area of contact, GI decontamination, administering an IV, or forced alkaline diuresis. (5)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID39732
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL136222
ChemSpider ID36329
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDDIHYDRO-DIOH-BENZOATE
CTD IDC078329
Stitch ID1,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  3. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1998). Toxicological profile for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Last Updated 19 May 2009. [Link]
  5. US Environmental Protection Agency (2009). Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Liu H, Biegel L, Narasimhan TR, Rowlands C, Safe S: Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-I responses in MCF-7 cells by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related compounds. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1992 Sep;87(1-3):19-28. [1332906 ]
  2. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1998). Toxicological profile for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.
Gene Name:
TTR
Uniprot ID:
P02766
Molecular Weight:
15886.88 Da
References
  1. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological profile for polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBBs and PBDEs). U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]