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Record Information
Creation Date2009-07-02 21:52:47 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:28 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2423
Common Name1,2,3-Trichlorodibenzofuran
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionChlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) are a family of chemical that contain one to eight chlorine atoms attached to the carbon atoms of the parent chemical, dibenzofuran. The CDF family contains 135 individual compounds (known as congeners) with varying harmful health and environmental effects. Of these 135 compounds, those that contain chlorine atoms at the 2,3,7,8-positions of the parent dibenzofuran molecule are especially harmful. Other than for laboratory use of small amounts of CDFs for research and development purposes, these chemicals are not deliberately produced by industry. Most CDFs are produced in very small amounts as unwanted impurities of certain products and processes utilizing chlorinated compounds. Only a few of the 135 CDF compounds have been produced in large enough quantities so that their properties, such as color, smell, taste, and toxicity could be studied. (3)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Chlorinated Dibenzofuran
  • Dibenzofuran
  • Industrial By-product/Pollutant
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Dibenzofuran, 1,2,3-trichloro
Chemical FormulaC12H5Cl3O
Average Molecular Mass271.527 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass269.941 g/mol
CAS Registry Number83636-47-9
IUPAC Name3,4,5-trichloro-8-oxatricyclo[²,⁷]trideca-1(13),2,4,6,9,11-hexaene
Traditional Name3,4,5-trichloro-8-oxatricyclo[²,⁷]trideca-1(13),2,4,6,9,11-hexaene
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H5Cl3O/c13-7-5-9-10(12(15)11(7)14)6-3-1-2-4-8(6)16-9/h1-5H
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as polychlorinated dibenzofurans. These are organic compounds containing two or more chlorine atoms attached to a dibenzofuran moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassDibenzofurans
Direct ParentPolychlorinated dibenzofurans
Alternative Parents
  • Polychlorinated dibenzofuran
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Furan
  • Oxacycle
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
ProteasomeNot AvailableNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceColorless crystals.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0051 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area13.14 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity65.64 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability25.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-9d42fb17a223ceeb71402016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-db02cd1abef54c5c8c392016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-1090000000-d9a911415a6fb371e7fb2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-89e394bc5333c5439a682016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-89e394bc5333c5439a682016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-0090000000-517ffab619acf539eb262016-08-03View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (3) ; dermal (3) ; oral (3)
Mechanism of ToxicityHalogenated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and PBDFs) bind the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which increases its ability to activate transcription in the XRE (xenobiotic resoponse element) promoter region. Specifically AhR binds to the PCDF, translocates it to the nucleus and together with hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) and xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) increases the expression of CYP1A1 and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (CYP1B1). AhR signaling also increseases conversion of arachidonic acid to prostanoids via cyclooxygenase-2, alters Wnt/beta-catenin signaling downregulating Sox9 and alters signaling by receptors for inflammatory cytokines. AhR signalling also alters proteasomal degradation of steroid hormone receptors, alters cellular UVB stress response and changes the differentiation of certain T-cell subsets. The resulting AhR mediated activation and alteration leads to body weight loss, cancer and thymic atrophy (characteristic of immune and endocrine disruption) which are common toxic responses to PCDFs and related toxic halogenated aryl hydrocarbons.
MetabolismNo information on the metabolism of dibenzofuran in mammalian organisms was found in the available literature. The bacteria Sphingomonas, Brevibacterium, Terrabacter, and Staphylococcus auricularis degrade dibenzofuran to 2,2',3-trihydroxybiphenyl via dibenzofuran 4,4a-dioxygenase. (3)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (2)
Uses/SourcesCDFs are created from production of coal tar and during incineration. They are used as insecticides, in the production of PVC, and in industrial bleaching. (3)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsCDFs cause vomiting and diarrhea, anemia, more frequent lung infections, numbness and other effects on the nervous system, and mild changes in the liver. However, there were no permanent liver changes or definite liver damage found in people who ingested CDFs. (3)
SymptomsSkin and eye irritations, especially severe acne, darkened skin color, and swollen eyelids with discharge are the most obvious health effects of the CDF poisoning. (3)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID55054
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID49718
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch ID1,2,3-Trichlorodibenzofuran
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Long G, McKinney J, Pedersen L. Polychlorinated Dibenzofuran (PCDF) Binding to the Ah Receptor(s) and Associated Enzyme Induction. Theoretical Model Based on Molecular Parameters. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships. 2002;6(1):1-7.
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Dibenzofuran. Last Updated 1 June 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
  1. Ni J, Pang ST, Yeh S: Differential retention of alpha-vitamin E is correlated with its transporter gene expression and growth inhibition efficacy in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007 Apr 1;67(5):463-71. [17252538 ]
  2. Long G, McKinney J, Pedersen L. Polychlorinated Dibenzofuran (PCDF) Binding to the Ah Receptor(s) and Associated Enzyme Induction. Theoretical Model Based on Molecular Parameters. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships. 2002;6(1):1-7.
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]