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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:14 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:49 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2706
Identification
Common NameAmphetamine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAmphetamine is a chiral compound. The racemic mixture can be divided into its optical antipodes: levo- and dextro-amphetamine. Amphetamine is the parent compound of its own structural class, comprising a broad range of psychoactive derivatives, e.g., MDMA (Ecstasy) and the N-methylated form, methamphetamine. Amphetamine is a homologue of phenethylamine.
Compound Type
  • Adrenergic Agent
  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitor
  • Amine
  • Amphetamine
  • Central Nervous System Stimulant
  • Dopamine Agent
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitor
  • Drug
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Sympathomimetic
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+/-)-Benzedrine
(+/-)-beta-Phenylisopropylamine
(+/-)-Desoxynorephedrine
1-Methyl-2-phenylethylamine
1-Phenyl-2-aminopropane
1-Phenylpropan-2-amin
3-Methoxyamphetamine
alpha-Methylbenzeneethaneamine
alpha-Methylphenylethylamine
Amfetamine
Amfetaminum
Amphetamin
Amphetamine Sulfate
beta-Aminopropylbenzene
beta-Phenyl-isopropylamine
beta-Phenylisopropylamin
beta-Phenylisopropylamine
Desoxynorephedrine
Dl-1-Phenyl-2-aminopropane
DL-alpha-Methylphenethylamine
Dl-Amphetamine
Dl-Benzedrine
Fenylo-izopropylaminyl
m-Methoxyamphetamine
Methamphetamine HCL
[1-(3-Methoxyphenyl)-2-propyl]amine
α-methylbenzeneethaneamine
α-methylphenethylamine
β-aminopropylbenzene
β-phenylisopropylamine
Chemical FormulaC9H13N
Average Molecular Mass135.206 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass135.105 g/mol
CAS Registry Number300-62-9
IUPAC Name1-phenylpropan-2-amine
Traditional Nameadderall
SMILESCC(N)CC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C9H13N/c1-8(10)7-9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-6,8H,7,10H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=KWTSXDURSIMDCE-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointVolatizes slowly at room temperature
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilitySlightly
LogP1.76
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.74 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.85ALOGPS
logP1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.71 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-0006-9200000000-232318ebc6787ee59036View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014r-0900000000-8c26eef755113726e527View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-8cb9815fcd67a6b46f05View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-5ec7b13e93ed8e0dc0b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014u-3900000000-bbb73c900841d90c0ba1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9400000000-074f0f58bee23b3ea45aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-96e214b1c073232acc7eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-b6e1299382e4b38f6c4fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-2ed560c4c86538c3e790View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-6ddaf7d40e83a5c70c37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014u-3900000000-5a23e52436daebe58716View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9500000000-f28704987cc3eacc8917View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-421879391d3453649aadView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-f8b71db6439096bac2b0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-270039c50b5f89d9c4adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-e84756122a0b431eee74View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-20cdadf7c5b742c53087View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00kr-0900000000-e842cf90085d664ef1c3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014r-2900000000-2b5fda1ab431107344f5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0fr6-9400000000-b1a9d46f37313e323a64View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-0e421d19515a1429b103View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-fff6e7346b2c36a8ab21View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014l-7900000000-3cd62c7239479d83b257View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-98cd0a725199f943d6cfView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral. Amphetamine forms easily absorbed molecules that are highly lipid soluble.
Mechanism of ToxicityAmphetamines stimulate the release of norepinephrine from central adrenergic receptors. At higher dosages, they cause release of dopamine from the mesocorticolimbic system and the nigrostriatal dopamine systems. Amphetamine may also act as a direct agonist on central 5-HT receptors and may inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO). In the periphery, amphetamines are believed to cause the release of noradrenaline by acting on the adrenergic nerve terminals and alpha- and beta-receptors. Modulation of serotonergic pathways may contribute to the calming affect. The drug interacts with VMAT enzymes to enhance release of DA and 5-HT from vesicles. It may also directly cause the reversal of DAT and SERT.
MetabolismHepatic Half Life: 10 hours
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 180 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Rat) (4)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADDH) and narcolepsy in children.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsProlonged use may cause hallucinations and intense paranoia. Amphetamines are psychologically addictive. Users who stop using them report that they experience various mood problems such as aggression and anxiety and intense cravings for the drugs. Using large amounts of these drugs can result in a condition known as amphetamine psychosis -- which can result in auditory, visual and tactile hallucinations, intense paranoia, irrational thoughts and beliefs, delusions, and mental confusion.
SymptomsThe most common presenting symptoms seen are agitation, hallucinations, suicidal behaviour, and chest pain.
TreatmentManagement of acute amphetamine intoxication is largely symptomatic and includes gastric lavage, administration of activated charcoal, administration of a cathartic and sedation. (8)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00182
HMDB IDHMDB14328
PubChem Compound ID3007
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL405
ChemSpider ID13852819
KEGG IDC07514
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID2679
BioCyc IDCPD-7659
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAmphetamine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmphetamine
References
Synthesis Reference

Guohong Wang, “Composition and methods for synthesis of novel tracers for detecting amphetamine and methamphetamine in samples.” U.S. Patent US20020090661, issued July 11, 2002.

MSDST3D2706.pdf
General References
  1. Leith NJ, Kuczenski R: Chronic amphetamine: tolerance and reverse tolerance reflect different behavioral actions of the drug. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1981 Sep;15(3):399-404. [7291243 ]
  2. Chaudhry IA, Turkanis SA, Karler R: Characteristics of "reverse tolerance" to amphetamine-induced locomotor stimulation in mice. Neuropharmacology. 1988 Aug;27(8):777-81. [3216957 ]
  3. Sax KW, Strakowski SM: Behavioral sensitization in humans. J Addict Dis. 2001;20(3):55-65. [11681593 ]
  4. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  5. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [15955613 ]
  6. ZAPPI F, MILLEFIORINI M: [Treatment of the antabuse-alcohol complication with betaphenylisopropylamine; experimental aspects]. Riv Neurol. 1955 Sep-Oct;25(5):725-32. [13298508 ]
  7. Drugs.com [Link]
  8. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.116 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50005246
References
  1. Lott DC, Kim SJ, Cook EH Jr, de Wit H: Dopamine transporter gene associated with diminished subjective response to amphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Mar;30(3):602-9. [15602501 ]
  2. Fone KC, Nutt DJ: Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2005 Feb;5(1):87-93. [15661631 ]
  3. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. [15764732 ]
  4. Garcia BG, Wei Y, Moron JA, Lin RZ, Javitch JA, Galli A: Akt is essential for insulin modulation of amphetamine-induced human dopamine transporter cell-surface redistribution. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Jul;68(1):102-9. Epub 2005 Mar 28. [15795321 ]
  5. Madras BK, Miller GM, Fischman AJ: The dopamine transporter and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun 1;57(11):1397-409. Epub 2005 Jan 5. [15950014 ]
  6. Pristupa ZB, Wilson JM, Hoffman BJ, Kish SJ, Niznik HB: Pharmacological heterogeneity of the cloned and native human dopamine transporter: disassociation of [3H]WIN 35,428 and [3H]GBR 12,935 binding. Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Jan;45(1):125-35. [8302271 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Satiety factor closely associated with the actions of leptin and neuropeptide y; this anorectic peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y and regulated by leptin in the hypothalamus. It promotes neuronal development and survival in vitro.
Gene Name:
CARTPT
Uniprot ID:
Q16568
Molecular Weight:
12828.975 Da
References
  1. Loos RJ, Rankinen T, Tremblay A, Perusse L, Chagnon Y, Bouchard C: Melanocortin-4 receptor gene and physical activity in the Quebec Family Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Apr;29(4):420-8. [15597110 ]
  2. McAlister ED, Van Vugt DA: Effect of leptin administration versus re-feeding on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression in fasted male rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;82(12):1128-34. [15644956 ]
  3. Muhlhausler BS, Adam CL, Marrocco EM, Findlay PA, Roberts CT, McFarlane JR, Kauter KG, McMillen IC: Impact of glucose infusion on the structural and functional characteristics of adipose tissue and on hypothalamic gene expression for appetite regulatory neuropeptides in the sheep fetus during late gestation. J Physiol. 2005 May 15;565(Pt 1):185-95. Epub 2005 Jan 20. [15661821 ]
  4. Scruggs P, Lai CC, Scruggs JE, Dun NJ: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide potentiates spinal glutamatergic sympathoexcitation in anesthetized rats. Regul Pept. 2005 Apr 15;127(1-3):79-85. [15680473 ]
  5. Oliveira VX Jr, Fazio MA, Miranda MT, da Silva JM, Bittencourt JC, Elias CF, Miranda A: Leptin fragments induce Fos immunoreactivity in rat hypothalamus. Regul Pept. 2005 Apr 15;127(1-3):123-32. [15680478 ]
General Function:
Trace-amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for trace amines, including beta-phenylethylamine (b-PEA), p-tyramine (p-TYR), octopamine and tryptamine, with highest affinity for b-PEA and p-TYR. Unresponsive to classical biogenic amines, such as epinephrine and histamine and only partially activated by dopamine and serotonine. Trace amines are biogenic amines present in very low levels in mammalian tissues. Although some trace amines have clearly defined roles as neurotransmitters in invertebrates, the extent to which they function as true neurotransmitters in vertebrates has remained speculative. Trace amines are likely to be involved in a variety of physiological functions that have yet to be fully understood. The signal transduced by this receptor is mediated by the G(s)-class of G-proteins which activate adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
TAAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RJ0
Molecular Weight:
39091.34 Da
References
  1. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. [15764732 ]
  2. Reese EA, Bunzow JR, Arttamangkul S, Sonders MS, Grandy DK: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 displays species-dependent stereoselectivity for isomers of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and para-hydroxyamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):178-86. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [17218486 ]
  3. Xie Z, Westmoreland SV, Bahn ME, Chen GL, Yang H, Vallender EJ, Yao WD, Madras BK, Miller GM: Rhesus monkey trace amine-associated receptor 1 signaling: enhancement by monoamine transporters and attenuation by the D2 autoreceptor in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):116-27. Epub 2007 Jan 18. [17234900 ]
  4. Wolinsky TD, Swanson CJ, Smith KE, Zhong H, Borowsky B, Seeman P, Branchek T, Gerald CP: The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Oct;6(7):628-39. Epub 2006 Dec 21. [17212650 ]
  5. Xie Z, Miller GM: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a modulator of the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):128-36. Epub 2007 Jan 18. [17234899 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles. Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis.
Gene Name:
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID:
Q05940
Molecular Weight:
55712.075 Da
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [15955613 ]
  2. Sulzer D, Chen TK, Lau YY, Kristensen H, Rayport S, Ewing A: Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. J Neurosci. 1995 May;15(5 Pt 2):4102-8. [7751968 ]
  3. Teng L, Crooks PA, Dwoskin LP: Lobeline displaces [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and releases [3H]dopamine from rat striatal synaptic vesicles: comparison with d-amphetamine. J Neurochem. 1998 Jul;71(1):258-65. [9648873 ]
  4. Eiden LE, Weihe E: VMAT2: a dynamic regulator of brain monoaminergic neuronal function interacting with drugs of abuse. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Jan;1216:86-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05906.x. [21272013 ]
5. Alpha adrenergic receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Included Proteins:
P35348 , P35368 , P25100 , P08913 , P18089 , P18825
References
  1. Leibowitz SF: Reciprocal hunger-regulating circuits involving alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors located, respectively, in the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Oct;67(2):1063-70. [4399738 ]
  2. Reisine TD, U'Prichard DC, Wiech NL, Ursillo RC, Yamamura HI: Effects of combined administration of amphetamine and iprindole on brain adrenergic receptors. Brain Res. 1980 Apr 28;188(2):587-92. [6245760 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
7. Beta adrenergic receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Included Proteins:
P08588 , P07550 , P13945
References
  1. Leibowitz SF: Reciprocal hunger-regulating circuits involving alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors located, respectively, in the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Oct;67(2):1063-70. [4399738 ]
  2. Reisine TD, U'Prichard DC, Wiech NL, Ursillo RC, Yamamura HI: Effects of combined administration of amphetamine and iprindole on brain adrenergic receptors. Brain Res. 1980 Apr 28;188(2):587-92. [6245760 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0071 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50005246
References
  1. Rothman RB, Vu N, Partilla JS, Roth BL, Hufeisen SJ, Compton-Toth BA, Birkes J, Young R, Glennon RA: In vitro characterization of ephedrine-related stereoisomers at biogenic amine transporters and the receptorome reveals selective actions as norepinephrine transporter substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Oct;307(1):138-45. Epub 2003 Sep 3. [12954796 ]
  2. Wall SC, Gu H, Rudnick G: Biogenic amine flux mediated by cloned transporters stably expressed in cultured cell lines: amphetamine specificity for inhibition and efflux. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 Mar;47(3):544-50. [7700252 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory6.606 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50005246
References
  1. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [9686407 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Juhila J, Honkanen A, Sallinen J, Haapalinna A, Korpi ER, Scheinin M: alpha(2A)-Adrenoceptors regulate d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and behavioural sensitization in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Jul 4;517(1-2):74-83. [15978573 ]
General Function:
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular Weight:
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Clarke DE, Lyles GA, Callingham BA: A comparison of cardiac and vascular clorgyline-resistant amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase. Inhibition by amphetamine, mexiletine and other drugs. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Jan 1;31(1):27-35. [7059347 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50005246
References
  1. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [9686407 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Innis RB, Malison RT, al-Tikriti M, Hoffer PB, Sybirska EH, Seibyl JP, Zoghbi SS, Baldwin RM, Laruelle M, Smith EO, et al.: Amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release competes in vivo for [123I]IBZM binding to the D2 receptor in nonhuman primates. Synapse. 1992 Mar;10(3):177-84. [1532675 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [17209801 ]