Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:35 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:51 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2750
Identification
Common NameDihydroergotamine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDihydroergotamine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ergotamine. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of migraine disorders. Two theories have been proposed to explain the efficacy of 5-HT1D receptor agonists in migraine: 1) activation of 5-HT1D receptors located on intracranial blood vessels, including those on arterio-venous anastomoses, leads to vasoconstriction, which correlates with the relief of migraine headache and 2) activation of 5-HT1D receptors on sensory nerve endings of the trigeminal system results in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Analgesic
  • Analgesic, Non-Narcotic
  • Anti-Migraine Agent
  • Dopamine Agonist
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Sympatholytic
  • Synthetic Compound
  • Vasoconstrictor Agent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(2R,4R,7R)-N-[(1S,2S,4R,7S)-7-benzyl-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-5,8-dioxo-3-oxa-6,9-diazatricyclo[7.3.0.02,6]dodecan-4-yl]-6-methyl-6,11-diazatetracyclo[7.6.1.02,7.012,16]hexadeca-1(16),9,12,14-tetraene-4-carboxamide
5'-Benzyl-12'-hydroxy-2'-methyl-3',6',18-trioxo-9,10-dihydroergotaman
9,10-dihydro-12'-Hydroxy-2'-methyl-5'-(phenylmethyl)ergotoman-3',6',18-trione
9,10-Dihydro-ergotamine
9,10-dihydroergotamine
D.H.E. 45
Dihidroergotamina
Dihydergot
Dihydroergotamin
Dihydroergotamine mesylate
Dihydroergotamine methanesulfonate
Dihydroergotamine monomethanesulfonate
Dihydroergotaminum
Diidroergotamina
Ergont
Ergotonin
Ikaran
Migranal
Orstanorm
Verladyn
Chemical FormulaC33H37N5O5
Average Molecular Mass583.677 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass583.279 g/mol
CAS Registry Number6190-39-2
IUPAC Name(2R,4R,7R)-N-[(1S,2S,4R,7S)-7-benzyl-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-5,8-dioxo-3-oxa-6,9-diazatricyclo[7.3.0.0²,⁶]dodecan-4-yl]-6-methyl-6,11-diazatetracyclo[7.6.1.0²,⁷.0¹²,¹⁶]hexadeca-1(16),9,12,14-tetraene-4-carboxamide
Traditional Namedihydroergotamine
SMILES[H][C@@]12CCCN1C(=O)[C@]([H])(CC1=CC=CC=C1)N1C(=O)[C@@](C)(O[C@@]21O)N=C(O)[C@@]1([H])CN(C)[C@]2([H])CC3=CNC4=CC=CC(=C34)[C@@]2([H])C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C33H37N5O5/c1-32(35-29(39)21-15-23-22-10-6-11-24-28(22)20(17-34-24)16-25(23)36(2)18-21)31(41)38-26(14-19-8-4-3-5-9-19)30(40)37-13-7-12-27(37)33(38,42)43-32/h3-6,8-11,17,21,23,25-27,34,42H,7,12-16,18H2,1-2H3,(H,35,39)/t21-,23-,25-,26+,27+,32-,33+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=LUZRJRNZXALNLM-JGRZULCMSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ergotamines, dihydroergotamines, and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an ergotamine moiety, which is structurally characterized by a benzyl substituent attached to the piperazine ring of the ergopeptine backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassErgoline and derivatives
Sub ClassLysergic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentErgotamines, dihydroergotamines, and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydroergotamine
  • Ergotamine
  • Hybrid peptide
  • Alpha-dipeptide
  • Lysergic acid amide
  • Indoloquinoline
  • Benzoquinoline
  • Quinoline-3-carboxamide
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Pyrroloquinoline
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Quinoline
  • 3-alkylindole
  • Indole
  • Indole or derivatives
  • Isoindole or derivatives
  • Piperidinecarboxamide
  • 3-piperidinecarboxamide
  • Aralkylamine
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Oxazolidinone
  • Piperazine
  • Piperidine
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Oxazolidine
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Pyrrole
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Lactam
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Orthocarboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxamide group
  • Tertiary amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Alkanolamine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility2.29e-01 g/L
LogP2
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.23 g/LALOGPS
logP3.04ALOGPS
logP2.71ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.71ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.39ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.21 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity159.39 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability63.3 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fr5-5891210000-f53c38352e2598f9007eView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fdn-7491022000-6c73d0337e04ab2f6918View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0022090000-bfd200952b03e8b137ffView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0un9-0091010000-c5661ba02ab58100d046View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-4590000000-dc4a0cca36e4ae6c18c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0019-0049160000-4fdc70b6d84db2eb175eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03xr-2196220000-3c3fcf127102792f663cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0g4j-9810000000-88f13186254d2bf07e89View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureIntravenous (7); Nasal (7). Interpatient variable and may be dependent on the administration technique
Mechanism of ToxicityTwo theories have been proposed to explain the efficacy of 5-HT1D receptor agonists in migraine: 1) activation of 5-HT1D receptors located on intracranial blood vessels, including those on arterio-venous anastomoses, leads to vasoconstriction, which correlates with the relief of migraine headache and 2) activation of 5-HT1D receptors on sensory nerve endings of the trigeminal system results in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release.
MetabolismDihydroergotamine is metabolized in the liver, with metabolites predominantly excreted in the feces. (5) Route of Elimination: The major excretory route of dihydroergotamine is via the bile in the feces. Only 6%-7% of unchanged dihydroergotamine is excreted in the urine after intramuscular injection. Half Life: 9 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesDihydroergotamine is a 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ergotamine. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of migraine disorders. Ergoline alkaloids occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae (morning glory) family and in some species of lower fungi. (8, 11) For the acute treatment of migraine headaches with or without aura and the acute treatment of cluster headache episodes.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsIngestion of ergoline alkaloids is known to cause the disease ergotism. Ergotism occurs in two forms, gangrenous and convulsive, likely depending on the different kinds and amounts of ergoline alkaloids present. (1, 12)
SymptomsConvulsive ergotism can cause painful seizures and spasms, diarrhea, paresthesias, itching, headaches, nausea and vomiting. Usually the gastrointestinal effects precede the central nervous system effects. As well as seizures there can be hallucinations and mental effects including mania or psychosis. Gangrenous ergotism causes dry gangrene as a result of vasoconstriction induced in the more poorly vascularized distal structures, such as the fingers and toes. Symptoms include desquamation, weak periphery pulse, loss of peripheral sensation, edema and ultimately the death and loss of affected tissues. (9, 12)
TreatmentTreatment for ergotism consists of vasodilators, anticoagulants and low molecular weight dextrans. If necessary, a sympathetic nerve blockade may be carried out, such as brachial plexus blockade. Temporary sedation (e.g. haloperidol) will be necessary in hallucination and diazepam is used for convulsions. There is no specific antidote. (10, 12)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00320
HMDB IDHMDB14465
PubChem Compound ID10531
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1732
ChemSpider ID10091
KEGG IDC07798
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID4562
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDDihydroergotamine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDihydroergotamine
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Richard JL: Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses--an overview. Int J Food Microbiol. 2007 Oct 20;119(1-2):3-10. Epub 2007 Jul 31. [17719115 ]
  2. Mantegani S, Brambilla E, Varasi M: Ergoline derivatives: receptor affinity and selectivity. Farmaco. 1999 May 30;54(5):288-96. [10418123 ]
  3. Schiff PL: Ergot and its alkaloids. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006 Oct 15;70(5):98. [17149427 ]
  4. Kvernmo T, Hartter S, Burger E: A review of the receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopamine agonists. Clin Ther. 2006 Aug;28(8):1065-78. [16982285 ]
  5. Saper JR, Silberstein S: Pharmacology of dihydroergotamine and evidence for efficacy and safety in migraine. Headache. 2006 Nov;46 Suppl 4:S171-81. [17078849 ]
  6. Silberstein SD: The pharmacology of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. Headache. 1997;37 Suppl 1:S15-25. [9009470 ]
  7. Drugs.com [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Ergoline. Last Updated 2 April 2010. [Link]
  9. Wikipedia. Ergotism. Last Updated 6 April 2010. [Link]
  10. Van den Enden, E. (2004). Illustrated Lecture Notes on Tropical Medicine. [Link]
  11. Wikipedia. Dihydroergotamine. Last Updated 3 April 2010. [Link]
  12. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2010). D.H.E. 45 (Dihydroergotamine). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Regulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity. May also play a role in regulating the release of other neurotransmitters. May play a role in vasoconstriction.
Gene Name:
HTR1D
Uniprot ID:
P28221
Molecular Weight:
41906.38 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Lesage AS, Wouters R, Van Gompel P, Heylen L, Vanhoenacker P, Haegeman G, Luyten WH, Leysen JE: Agonistic properties of alniditan, sumatriptan and dihydroergotamine on human 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors expressed in various mammalian cell lines. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Apr;123(8):1655-65. [9605573 ]
  3. Buzzi MG, Moskowitz MA: The trigemino-vascular system and migraine. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1992 Apr;40(4):313-7. [1379707 ]
  4. Buzzi MG, Dimitriadou V, Theoharides TC, Moskowitz MA: 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor agonists for the abortive treatment of vascular headaches block mast cell, endothelial and platelet activation within the rat dura mater after trigeminal stimulation. Brain Res. 1992 Jun 26;583(1-2):137-49. [1324091 ]
  5. Silberstein SD, McCrory DC: Ergotamine and dihydroergotamine: history, pharmacology, and efficacy. Headache. 2003 Feb;43(2):144-66. [12558771 ]
  6. Hoyer D, Lery H, Waeber C, Bruinvels AT, Nozulak J, Palacios JM: "5-HT1R" or 5-HT1D sites? Evidence for 5-HT1D binding sites in rabbit brain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1992 Sep;346(3):249-54. [1407010 ]
  7. Silberstein SD: The pharmacology of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. Headache. 1997;37 Suppl 1:S15-25. [9009470 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Regulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, nociceptive processing, pain perception, mood and behavior. Besides, plays a role in vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries.
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular Weight:
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Willems EW, Trion M, De Vries P, Heiligers JP, Villalon CM, Saxena PR: Pharmacological evidence that alpha1-and alpha2-adrenoceptors mediate vasoconstriction of carotid arteriovenous anastomoses in anaesthetized pigs. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jul;127(5):1263-71. [10455274 ]
  2. Villalon CM, Centurion D, Willems EW, Arulmani U, Saxena PR, Valdivia LF: 5-HT1B receptors and alpha 2A/2C-adrenoceptors mediate external carotid vasoconstriction to dihydroergotamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 26;484(2-3):287-90. [14744615 ]
  3. Buzzi MG, Moskowitz MA: Evidence for 5-HT1B/1D receptors mediating the antimigraine effect of sumatriptan and dihydroergotamine. Cephalalgia. 1991 Sep;11(4):165-8. [1660351 ]
  4. Yu XJ, Waeber C, Castanon N, Scearce K, Hen R, Macor JE, Chauveau J, Moskowitz MA: 5-Carboxamido-tryptamine, CP-122,288 and dihydroergotamine but not sumatriptan, CP-93,129, and serotonin-5-O-carboxymethyl-glycyl -tyrosinamide block dural plasma protein extravasation in knockout mice that lack 5-hydroxytryptamine1B receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1996 May;49(5):761-5. [8622623 ]
  5. Pauwels PJ, Palmier C, Dupuis DS, Colpaert FC: Interaction of 5-HT1B/D ligands with recombinant h 5-HT1A receptors: intrinsic activity and modulation by G-protein activation state. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1998 May;357(5):490-9. [9650800 ]
  6. Silberstein SD: The pharmacology of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. Headache. 1997;37 Suppl 1:S15-25. [9009470 ]
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Hanoun N, Saurini F, Lanfumey L, Hamon M, Bourgoin S: Dihydroergotamine and its metabolite, 8'-hydroxy-dihydroergotamine, as 5-HT1A receptor agonists in the rat brain. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 May;139(2):424-34. [12770948 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Silberstein SD: The pharmacology of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. Headache. 1997;37 Suppl 1:S15-25. [9009470 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various alkaloids and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
Gene Name:
HTR1F
Uniprot ID:
P30939
Molecular Weight:
41708.505 Da
References
  1. Silberstein SD: The pharmacology of ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. Headache. 1997;37 Suppl 1:S15-25. [9009470 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and in the regulation of extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, and thereby affects neural activity. May play a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including impulsive behavior. Required for normal proliferation of embryonic cardiac myocytes and normal heart development. Protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Plays a role in the adaptation of pulmonary arteries to chronic hypoxia. Plays a role in vasoconstriction. Required for normal osteoblast function and proliferation, and for maintaining normal bone density. Required for normal proliferation of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the intestine.
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Schaerlinger B, Hickel P, Etienne N, Guesnier L, Maroteaux L: Agonist actions of dihydroergotamine at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and their possible relevance to antimigraine efficacy. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;140(2):277-84. Epub 2003 Aug 11. [12970106 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Schaerlinger B, Hickel P, Etienne N, Guesnier L, Maroteaux L: Agonist actions of dihydroergotamine at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors and their possible relevance to antimigraine efficacy. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Sep;140(2):277-84. Epub 2003 Aug 11. [12970106 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Villalon CM, Centurion D, Willems EW, Arulmani U, Saxena PR, Valdivia LF: 5-HT1B receptors and alpha 2A/2C-adrenoceptors mediate external carotid vasoconstriction to dihydroergotamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004 Jan 26;484(2-3):287-90. [14744615 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC503 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50295557
References
  1. Roy K, Pratim Roy P: Comparative chemometric modeling of cytochrome 3A4 inhibitory activity of structurally diverse compounds using stepwise MLR, FA-MLR, PLS, GFA, G/PLS and ANN techniques. Eur J Med Chem. 2009 Jul;44(7):2913-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.12.004. Epub 2008 Dec 16. [19128860 ]
General Function:
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function:
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acyclovir, ganciclovir and also the zwitterionic cephalosporin, cephalexin and cephradin. Seems to also play a role in the uptake of oxaliplatin (a new platinum anticancer agent). Able to transport paraquat (PQ or N,N-dimethyl-4-4'-bipiridinium); a widely used herbicid. Responsible for the secretion of cationic drugs across the brush border membranes.
Gene Name:
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96FL8
Molecular Weight:
61921.585 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC502.8 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50295557
References
  1. Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM: Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):781-95. doi: 10.1021/jm301302s. Epub 2013 Jan 22. [23241029 ]
General Function:
Drug transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide, metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acyclovir, and ganciclovir. Responsible for the secretion of cationic drugs across the brush border membranes.
Gene Name:
SLC47A2
Uniprot ID:
Q86VL8
Molecular Weight:
65083.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5012.6 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50295557
References
  1. Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM: Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):781-95. doi: 10.1021/jm301302s. Epub 2013 Jan 22. [23241029 ]
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity.
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5049.9 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50295557
References
  1. Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM: Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):781-95. doi: 10.1021/jm301302s. Epub 2013 Jan 22. [23241029 ]