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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:21 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2851
Identification
Common NameMagnesium Sulfate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)
Compound Type
  • Analgesic
  • Anesthetic
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agent
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Calcium Channel Blocker
  • Drug
  • Household Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Metabolite
  • Synthetic Compound
  • Tocolytic Agent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Bitter salt
Magnesium sulfate
Magnesium sulfate (1:1)
Magnesium sulfate anhydrous
Magnesium sulfate dried
Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
Magnesium sulfic acid
Magnesium sulphate
Magnesium sulphate anhydrous
Magnesium sulphate dried
Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate
Magnesium Sulphate Hydrate
Magnesium sulphic acid
Magnesiumsulfat
MgSO4
Chemical FormulaMgO4S
Average Molecular Mass120.368 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass119.937 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7487-88-9
IUPAC Namemagnesium(2+) ion sulfate
Traditional Namemagnesium(2+) ion sulfate
SMILES[Mg++].[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/Mg.H2O4S/c;1-5(2,3)4/h;(H2,1,2,3,4)/q+2;/p-2
InChI KeyInChIKey=CSNNHWWHGAXBCP-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkaline earth metal sulfates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is sulfate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkaline earth metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassAlkaline earth metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassAlkaline earth metal sulfates
Direct ParentAlkaline earth metal sulfates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaline earth metal sulfate
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point1124°C (decomposition)
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility710 mg/mL
LogP-0.91
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area80.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity11.53 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-ecce6224eba6c0478dfdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-847e43052c710c4334efView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-847e43052c710c4334efView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-847e43052c710c4334efView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureParenteral(intravenous, intramuscular) oral.
Mechanism of ToxicityMagnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids. It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Magnesium sulfate reduces striated muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission by reducing acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction. Additionally, Magnesium inhibits Ca2+ influx through dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-dependent channels. This accounts for much of its relaxant action on vascular smooth muscle.
MetabolismMagnesium is almost exclusively excreted in the urine, with 90% of the dose excreted during the first 24 hours after an intravenous infusion of MgSO4. The pharmacokinetic profile of MgSO4 after intravenous administration can be described by a 2-compartment model with a rapid distribution (a) phase, followed by a relative slow beta phase of elimination. Route of Elimination: Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney at a rate proportional to the serum concentration and glomerular filtration. Half Life: 43.2 hours (for newborns)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 1200 mg/kg (rat, parenteral-subcutaneous). The first warning of impending toxicity is loss of the patellar reflex at plasma concentrations between 3.5 and 5 mmol/L. Respiratory paralysis occurs at 5 to 6.5 mmol/L. Cardiac conduction is altered at greater than 7.5 mmol/L, and cardiac arrest can be expected when concentrations of magnesium exceed 12.5 mmol/L.
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesOral magnesium sulfate, or magnesium hydroxide, is commonly used as a saline laxative. Epsom salt is also available in a gel form for topical application in treating aches and pains. Magnesium sulfate can be used to treat eclampsia in pregnant women. It can also delay labor in the case of premature labor, to delay preterm birth.In agriculture and gardening, magnesium sulfate is used to correct magnesium deficiency in soil, since magnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule. It can also be used as an anesthesic. A concentration of 1.8 to 3.0 mmol/L has been suggested for treatment of eclamptic convulsions.
Minimum Risk Level3.5 mmol/L in blood.
Health EffectsMay cause a potentially dangerous rash that may develop into Stevens Johnson syndrome, an extremely rare but potentially fatal skin disease. Respiratory paralysis occurs at 5 to 6.5 mmol/L. Cardiac conduction is altered at greater than 7.5 mmol/L, and cardiac arrest can be expected when concentrations of magnesium exceed 12.5 mmol/L.
SymptomsAdverse reactions include hypotension, ECG changes, diarrhea, urinary retention, CNS depression and respiratory depression.
TreatmentEYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00653
HMDB IDHMDB14791
PubChem Compound ID24083
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1200456
ChemSpider ID23226
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID32599
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDMagnesium Sulfate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID8570
Wikipedia LinkMagnesium_Sulfate
References
Synthesis Reference

Shinichi Yamamoto, Akifumi Sekitani, “BASIC MAGNESIUM SULFATE GRANULE, AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION THEREOF.” U.S. Patent US20110042297, issued February 24, 2011.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH: Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):337-44. [16002955 ]
  2. Gobel H, Stadler T: [Treatment of post-herpes zoster pain with tramadol. Results of an open pilot study versus clomipramine with or without levomepromazine]. Drugs. 1997;53 Suppl 2:34-9. [9190323 ]
  3. Lu JF, Nightingale CH: Magnesium sulfate in eclampsia and pre-eclampsia: pharmacokinetic principles. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Apr;38(4):305-14. [10803454 ]
  4. From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083
  5. Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y. Prolonged maternal magnesium administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86(3):187-91. Epub 2010 Mar 12.
  6. Wedig KE, Kogan J, Schorry EK et al. Skeletal demineralization and fractures caused by fetal magnesium toxicity. J Perinatol. 2006; 26(6):371-4.
  7. Nassar AH, Sakhel K, Maarouf H, et al. Adverse maternal and neonatal outcome of prolonged course of Magnesium Sulfate tocolysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scan. 2006;85(9):1099-103.
  8. Malaeb SN, Rassi A, Haddad MC. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labor. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34(5):384-6. Epub 2004 Feb 18.
  9. Matsuda Y, Maeda Y, Ito M, et al. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate treatment on neonatal bone abnormalities. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):82-8.
  10. Schanler RJ, Smith LG, Burns PA. Effects of long-term maternal intravenous Magnesium Sulfate therapy on neonatal calcium metabolism and bone mineral content. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):236-41.
  11. Santi MD, Henry GW, Douglas GL. Magnesium Sulfate treatment of preterm labor as a cause of abnormal neonatal bone mineralization. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994;14(2):249-53.
  12. Holcomb WL, Shackelford GD, Petrie RH. Magnesium tocolysis and neonatal bone abnormalities: a controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991; 78(4):611-4.
  13. Cumming WA, Thomas VJ. Hypermagnesemia: a cause of abnormal metaphyses in the neonate. Am J Roentgenol. 1989; 152(5):1071-2.
  14. Lamm CL, Norton KL, Murphy RJ. Congenital rickets associated with Magnesium Sulfate infusion for tocolysis. J Pediatr. 1988; 113(6):1078-82.
  15. McGuinness GA, Weinstein MM, Cruikshank DP, et al. Effects of Magnesium Sulfate treatment on perinatal calcium metabolism. II. Neonatal responses. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;56(5): 595-600.
  16. Riaz M, Porat R, Brodsky NL, et al. The effects of maternal Magnesium Sulfate treatment on newborns: a prospective controlled study. J Perinatol. 1998;18(6 pt 1):449-54.
  17. Aukland District Health Board (1996). Newborn Services Drug Protocol: Magnesium Sulphate. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function.
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular Weight:
248974.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1S subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
CACNA1S
Uniprot ID:
Q13698
Molecular Weight:
212348.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB1
Uniprot ID:
Q02641
Molecular Weight:
65712.995 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The beta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels contributes to the function of the calcium channel by increasing peak calcium current, shifting the voltage dependencies of activation and inactivation, modulating G protein inhibition and controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting.
Gene Name:
CACNB2
Uniprot ID:
Q08289
Molecular Weight:
73579.925 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
This protein is a subunit of the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive calcium channel. Plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. The skeletal muscle DHP-sensitive Ca(2+) channel may function only as a multiple subunit complex.
Gene Name:
CACNG1
Uniprot ID:
Q06432
Molecular Weight:
25028.105 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-2/delta subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels regulates calcium current density and activation/inactivation kinetics of the calcium channel. Plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CACNA2D1
Uniprot ID:
P54289
Molecular Weight:
124566.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]