|Creation Date||2009-07-21 20:27:21 UTC|
|Update Date||2014-12-24 20:25:52 UTC|
|Common Name||Magnesium Sulfate|
|Description||A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)|
- Anti-Arrhythmia Agent
- Calcium Channel Blocker
- Household Toxin
- Inorganic Compound
- Synthetic Compound
- Tocolytic Agent
|Magnesium sulfate (1:1)|
|Magnesium sulfate anhydrous|
|Magnesium sulfate dried|
|Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate|
|Magnesium sulfic acid|
|Magnesium sulphate anhydrous|
|Magnesium sulphate dried|
|Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate|
|Magnesium Sulphate Hydrate|
|Magnesium sulphic acid|
|Average Molecular Mass||120.368 g/mol|
|Monoisotopic Mass||119.937 g/mol|
|CAS Registry Number||7487-88-9|
|IUPAC Name||magnesium(2+) ion sulfate|
|Traditional Name||magnesium(2+) ion sulfate|
|Description|| belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as alkaline earth metal sulfates. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is sulfate, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is an alkaline earth metal.|
|Kingdom||Inorganic compounds |
|Super Class||Mixed metal/non-metal compounds |
|Class||Alkaline earth metal oxoanionic compounds |
|Sub Class||Alkaline earth metal sulfates |
|Direct Parent||Alkaline earth metal sulfates |
- Alkaline earth metal sulfate
- Inorganic oxide
- Inorganic salt
|Molecular Framework||Not Available|
|Status||Detected and Not Quantified|
|Biofluid Locations||Not Available|
|Tissue Locations||Not Available|
|Chemical Roles||Not Available|
|Melting Point||1124°C (decomposition)|
|Boiling Point||Not Available|
|Route of Exposure||Parenteral(intravenous, intramuscular) oral.|
|Mechanism of Toxicity||Magnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids. It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Magnesium sulfate reduces striated muscle contractions and blocks peripheral neuromuscular transmission by reducing acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction. Additionally, Magnesium inhibits Ca2+ influx through dihydropyridine-sensitive, voltage-dependent channels. This accounts for much of its relaxant action on vascular smooth muscle.|
|Metabolism||Magnesium is almost exclusively excreted in the urine, with 90% of the dose excreted during the first 24 hours after an intravenous infusion of MgSO4. The pharmacokinetic profile of MgSO4 after intravenous administration can be described by a 2-compartment model with a rapid distribution (a) phase, followed by a relative slow beta phase of elimination.
Route of Elimination: Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney at a rate proportional to the serum concentration and glomerular filtration.
Half Life: 43.2 hours (for newborns)|
|Toxicity Values||LD50: 1200 mg/kg (rat, parenteral-subcutaneous).
The first warning of impending toxicity is loss of the patellar reflex at plasma concentrations between 3.5 and 5 mmol/L. Respiratory paralysis occurs at 5 to 6.5 mmol/L. Cardiac conduction is altered at greater than 7.5 mmol/L, and cardiac arrest can be expected when concentrations of magnesium exceed 12.5 mmol/L.|
|Lethal Dose||Not Available|
|Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)||No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).|
|Uses/Sources||Oral magnesium sulfate, or magnesium hydroxide, is commonly used as a saline laxative. Epsom salt is also available in a gel form for topical application in treating aches and pains. Magnesium sulfate can be used to treat eclampsia in pregnant women. It can also delay labor in the case of premature labor, to delay preterm birth.In agriculture and gardening, magnesium sulfate is used to correct magnesium deficiency in soil, since magnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule. It can also be used as an anesthesic. A concentration of 1.8 to 3.0 mmol/L has been suggested for treatment of eclamptic convulsions.
|Minimum Risk Level||3.5 mmol/L in blood.|
|Health Effects||May cause a potentially dangerous rash that may develop into Stevens Johnson syndrome, an extremely rare but potentially fatal skin disease. Respiratory paralysis occurs at 5 to 6.5 mmol/L. Cardiac conduction is altered at greater than 7.5 mmol/L, and cardiac arrest can be expected when concentrations of magnesium exceed 12.5 mmol/L.|
|Symptoms||Adverse reactions include hypotension, ECG changes, diarrhea, urinary retention, CNS depression and respiratory depression. |
|Treatment||EYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.|
|DrugBank ID||DB00653 |
|HMDB ID||HMDB14791 |
|PubChem Compound ID||24083 |
|ChEMBL ID||CHEMBL1200456 |
|ChemSpider ID||23226 |
|KEGG ID||Not Available|
|UniProt ID||Not Available|
|ChEBI ID||32599 |
|BioCyc ID||Not Available|
|CTD ID||Not Available|
|Stitch ID||Magnesium Sulfate |
|PDB ID||Not Available|
|Wikipedia Link||Magnesium_Sulfate |
Shinichi Yamamoto, Akifumi Sekitani, “BASIC MAGNESIUM SULFATE GRANULE, AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION THEREOF.” U.S. Patent US20110042297, issued February 24, 2011.
- Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH: Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):337-44. [16002955 ]
- Gobel H, Stadler T: [Treatment of post-herpes zoster pain with tramadol. Results of an open pilot study versus clomipramine with or without levomepromazine]. Drugs. 1997;53 Suppl 2:34-9. [9190323 ]
- Lu JF, Nightingale CH: Magnesium sulfate in eclampsia and pre-eclampsia: pharmacokinetic principles. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Apr;38(4):305-14. [10803454 ]
- From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083
- Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y. Prolonged maternal magnesium administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86(3):187-91. Epub 2010 Mar 12.
- Wedig KE, Kogan J, Schorry EK et al. Skeletal demineralization and fractures caused by fetal magnesium toxicity. J Perinatol. 2006; 26(6):371-4.
- Nassar AH, Sakhel K, Maarouf H, et al. Adverse maternal and neonatal outcome of prolonged course of Magnesium Sulfate tocolysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scan. 2006;85(9):1099-103.
- Malaeb SN, Rassi A, Haddad MC. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labor. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34(5):384-6. Epub 2004 Feb 18.
- Matsuda Y, Maeda Y, Ito M, et al. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate treatment on neonatal bone abnormalities. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):82-8.
- Schanler RJ, Smith LG, Burns PA. Effects of long-term maternal intravenous Magnesium Sulfate therapy on neonatal calcium metabolism and bone mineral content. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):236-41.
- Santi MD, Henry GW, Douglas GL. Magnesium Sulfate treatment of preterm labor as a cause of abnormal neonatal bone mineralization. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994;14(2):249-53.
- Holcomb WL, Shackelford GD, Petrie RH. Magnesium tocolysis and neonatal bone abnormalities: a controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991; 78(4):611-4.
- Cumming WA, Thomas VJ. Hypermagnesemia: a cause of abnormal metaphyses in the neonate. Am J Roentgenol. 1989; 152(5):1071-2.
- Lamm CL, Norton KL, Murphy RJ. Congenital rickets associated with Magnesium Sulfate infusion for tocolysis. J Pediatr. 1988; 113(6):1078-82.
- McGuinness GA, Weinstein MM, Cruikshank DP, et al. Effects of Magnesium Sulfate treatment on perinatal calcium metabolism. II. Neonatal responses. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;56(5): 595-600.
- Riaz M, Porat R, Brodsky NL, et al. The effects of maternal Magnesium Sulfate treatment on newborns: a prospective controlled study. J Perinatol. 1998;18(6 pt 1):449-54.
- Aukland District Health Board (1996). Newborn Services Drug Protocol: Magnesium Sulphate. [Link]
|Up-Regulated Genes||Not Available|
|Down-Regulated Genes||Not Available|