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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:33 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2877
Identification
Common NameScopolamine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionScopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). It is part of the secondary metabolites of plants. Scopolamine is used criminally as a date rape drug and as an aid to robbery, the most common act being the clandestine drugging of a victim's drink. It is preferred because it induces retrograde amnesia, or an inability to recall events prior to its administration. Victims of this crime are often admitted to a hospital in police custody, under the assumption that the patient is experiencing a psychotic episode. A telltale sign is a fever accompanied by a lack of sweat. An alkaloid from Solanaceae, especially Datura metel L. and Scopola carniolica. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like atropine, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in urinary incontinence, in motion sickness, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Compound Type
  • Adjuvant
  • Adjuvant, Anesthesia
  • Amine
  • Antimuscarinic
  • Antispasmodic
  • Cholinergic Antagonist
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Muscarinic Antagonist
  • Mydriatic
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+)-Hyoscine
(+)-Scopolamine
(-)-Hyoscine
(-)-Hyoscine hydrobromide
(-)-scopolamine
(-)-Scopolamine bromide
(-)-Scopolamine hydrobromide
(1S,3S,5R,6R,7S)-6,7-epoxytropan-3-yl (2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
6,7-Epoxytropine Tropate
6-beta,7-beta-Epoxy-3-alpha-tropanyl S-(-)-tropate
alpha-(Hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo(3.3.1.0(2.4))non-7-yl ester
Atrochin
Atroquin
Beldavrin
Buscopan
Epoxytropine tropate
Euscopol
Hydroscine hydrobromide
Hyosceine
Hyoscine
Hyoscine bromide
Hyoscine hydrobromide
Hyoscyine hydrobromide
Hyosol
Hysco
Isopto Hyoscine
Isoscopil
Kwells
L-Hyoscine hydrobromide
L-Scopolamine-hydrobromide
Methscopolamine Bromide
Oscine
Pamine
S-(-)-Tropate
Scop
Scopamin
scopine (-)-tropate
scopine (−)-tropate
Scopine tropate
Scopoderm
Scopolamine bromide
Scopolamine hydrobromide
Scopolaminium bromide
Scopolammonium bromide
SEE
Tranaxine
Transderm-Scop
Chemical FormulaC17H21NO4
Average Molecular Mass303.353 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass303.147 g/mol
CAS Registry Number51-34-3
IUPAC Name(1R,2R,4S,5S,7S)-9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo[3.3.1.0^{2,4}]nonan-7-yl (2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
Traditional Name(1R,2R,4S,5S,7S)-9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo[3.3.1.0^{2,4}]nonan-7-yl (2S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate
SMILES[H][C@](CO)(C(=O)O[C@]1([H])C[C@@]2([H])N(C)[C@@]([H])(C1)[C@]1([H])O[C@]21[H])C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C17H21NO4/c1-18-13-7-11(8-14(18)16-15(13)22-16)21-17(20)12(9-19)10-5-3-2-4-6-10/h2-6,11-16,19H,7-9H2,1H3/t11-,12-,13-,14+,15-,16+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=STECJAGHUSJQJN-FWXGHANASA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta hydroxy acids and derivatives. Beta hydroxy acids and derivatives are compounds containing a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the C3 carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassHydroxy acids and derivatives
Sub ClassBeta hydroxy acids and derivatives
Direct ParentBeta hydroxy acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Morpholine
  • Oxazinane
  • Piperidine
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Oxirane
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Brain
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Stratum Corneum
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point59°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1E+005 mg/L
LogP0.98
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.61 g/LALOGPS
logP1.4ALOGPS
logP0.89ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area62.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity79.72 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability31.24 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0f7c-7900000000-28f924e821203772c1ad2018-05-25View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-4910000000-24c90e50ab88ad57e82c2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-4900000000-596180a39c76ec0fe1ae2017-10-06View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0udi-0009000000-9733effdc3262b114ed62017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0udi-0809000000-a686e4c768aedb57cf8e2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-1901000000-f66f538c7db471e86fd52017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-3900000000-5eedeba4bedea55de9ad2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0udr-7900000000-1309364bbca3810a6afa2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-1c1d2f52fb7a5d745e1e2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9700000000-80887cb9e3f0d05c8bf52021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9800000000-80887cb9e3f0d05c8bf52021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 75V, Positivesplash10-0udi-6900000000-010e6e0ca9f0d9f3618b2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 60V, Positivesplash10-0f79-4900000000-a0695c5add6db92de8b22021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Positivesplash10-000i-2900000000-887570e409db5eca481c2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 60V, Positivesplash10-0f79-4900000000-5e1feadfe643a530d9562021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Positivesplash10-000i-2900000000-9556767e32b410cf8d732021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 15V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0309000000-fda2d2422fa0a3b4172e2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Positivesplash10-0k9i-0903000000-cc938997b1c67e020c142021-09-20View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0f79-0955000000-64498c50c4e2afb15c322016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-1930000000-5d768d7bc9f10614fd972016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0lxt-4900000000-f39cfd7374383b7b1aaf2016-06-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0549000000-2102ba2525a572e05e742016-08-04View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0uk9-1952000000-23caf7102d633b0031b22016-08-04View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0hr0-4900000000-854ad2f78678cc2d4db32016-08-04View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0f6t-0904000000-0366209ad3f767f887362021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0f79-1900000000-bd791764fd2502fdc39d2021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0gb9-2910000000-c7c4ffc22c1425ab3dbd2021-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0019000000-cc4ab81a673ee149c93e2021-09-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)Not Available2018-05-25View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, CD3OD, experimental)Not Available2018-05-25View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureParental (intravenous, intramuscular, and transdermal); oral
Mechanism of ToxicityScopolamine acts by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system (specifically the vomiting center).
Metabolism Route of Elimination: Less than 10% of the total dose is excreted in the urine as parent and metabolites over 108 hours. Half Life: 4.5 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of excessive salivation, colicky abdominal pain, bradycardia, sialorrhoea, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome and motion sickness.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00747
HMDB IDHMDB03573
PubChem Compound ID5184
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1201069
ChemSpider ID10194106
KEGG IDC01851
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16794
BioCyc IDSCOPOLAMINE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDScopolamine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkScopolamine
References
Synthesis Reference

Yang Guodong, “Preparation and application of scopolamine and chlorpromazine as a drug-withdrawal agent.” U.S. Patent US5543407, issued February, 1993.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Putcha L, Cintron NM, Tsui J, Vanderploeg JM, Kramer WG: Pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of scopolamine in normal subjects. Pharm Res. 1989 Jun;6(6):481-5. [2762223 ]
  2. Lee HW, Park WS, Kim YW, Cho SH, Kim SS, Seo JH, Lee KT: A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/positive ion tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of cimetropium in human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction. J Mass Spectrom. 2006 Jul;41(7):855-60. [16810649 ]
  3. Blin J, Piercey MF, Giuffra ME, Mouradian MM, Chase TN: Metabolic effects of scopolamine and physostigmine in human brain measured by positron emission tomography. J Neurol Sci. 1994 May;123(1-2):44-51. [8064320 ]
  4. Frey KA, Koeppe RA, Mulholland GK, Jewett D, Hichwa R, Ehrenkaufer RL, Carey JE, Wieland DM, Kuhl DE, Agranoff BW: In vivo muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging in human brain with [11C]scopolamine and positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1992 Jan;12(1):147-54. [1727135 ]
  5. Kranke P, Morin AM, Roewer N, Wulf H, Eberhart LH: The efficacy and safety of transdermal scopolamine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2002 Jul;95(1):133-43, table of contents. [12088957 ]
  6. Hagemann K, Piek K, Stockigt J, Weiler EW: Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative determination of the tropane alkaloid, scopolamine. Planta Med. 1992 Feb;58(1):68-72. [1620747 ]
  7. Boumba VA, Mitselou A, Vougiouklakis T: Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004 Apr;46(2):81-2. [15080209 ]
  8. Rosier A, Cornette L, Orban GA: Scopolamine-induced impairment of delayed recognition of abstract visual shapes. Neuropsychobiology. 1998;37(2):98-103. [9566275 ]
  9. Smith AM, Cadoret G, St-Amour D: Scopolamine increases prehensile force during object manipulation by reducing palmar sweating and decreasing skin friction. Exp Brain Res. 1997 May;114(3):578-83. [9187293 ]
  10. Ebert U, Grossmann M, Oertel R, Gramatte T, Kirch W: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the electroencephalogram effects of scopolamine in healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Jan;41(1):51-60. [11144994 ]
  11. Renner UD, Oertel R, Kirch W: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in clinical use of scopolamine. Ther Drug Monit. 2005 Oct;27(5):655-65. [16175141 ]
  12. Gordon C, Ben-Aryeh H, Attias J, Szargel R, Gutman D: Effect of transdermal scopolamine on salivation. J Clin Pharmacol. 1985 Sep;25(6):407-12. [4056076 ]
  13. Fan Y, Hu J, Li J, Yang Z, Xin X, Wang J, Ding J, Geng M: Effect of acidic oligosaccharide sugar chain on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats and its related mechanisms. Neurosci Lett. 2005 Feb 21;374(3):222-6. Epub 2004 Dec 10. [15663967 ]
  14. Stetina PM, Madai B, Kulemann V, Kirch W, Joukhadar C: Pharmacokinetics of scopolamine in serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar;43(3):134-9. [15792397 ]
  15. Schwarz RD, Callahan MJ, Coughenour LL, Dickerson MR, Kinsora JJ, Lipinski WJ, Raby CA, Spencer CJ, Tecle H: Milameline (CI-979/RU35926): a muscarinic receptor agonist with cognition-activating properties: biochemical and in vivo characterization. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):812-22. [10525104 ]
  16. Suojaranta-Ylinen R, Hendolin H, Tuomisto L: The effects of morphine, morphine plus scopolamine, midazolam and promethazine on cerebrospinal fluid histamine concentration and postoperative analgesic consumption. Agents Actions. 1991 May;33(1-2):212-4. [1897441 ]
  17. Dreyfuss P, Vogel D, Walsh N: The use of transdermal scopolamine to control drooling. A case report. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Aug;70(4):220-2. [1878183 ]
  18. Drugs.com [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Johnson DE, Nedza FM, Spracklin DK, Ward KM, Schmidt AW, Iredale PA, Godek DM, Rollema H: The role of muscarinic receptor antagonism in antipsychotic-induced hippocampal acetylcholine release. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Jan 4;506(3):209-19. Epub 2004 Dec 15. [15627430 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Murasaki O, Kaibara M, Nagase Y, Mitarai S, Doi Y, Sumikawa K, Taniyama K: Site of action of the general anesthetic propofol in muscarinic M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Dec;307(3):995-1000. Epub 2003 Oct 8. [14534362 ]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Reitz AB, Gupta SK, Huang Y, Parker MH, Ryan RR: The preparation and human muscarinic receptor profiling of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin enantiomers. Med Chem. 2007 Nov;3(6):543-5. [18045203 ]
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Reitz AB, Gupta SK, Huang Y, Parker MH, Ryan RR: The preparation and human muscarinic receptor profiling of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin enantiomers. Med Chem. 2007 Nov;3(6):543-5. [18045203 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular Weight:
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Reitz AB, Gupta SK, Huang Y, Parker MH, Ryan RR: The preparation and human muscarinic receptor profiling of oxybutynin and N-desethyloxybutynin enantiomers. Med Chem. 2007 Nov;3(6):543-5. [18045203 ]
General Function:
Sucrose alpha-glucosidase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the final stage of carbohydrate digestion. Isomaltase activity is specific for both alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-oligosaccharides.
Gene Name:
SI
Uniprot ID:
P14410
Molecular Weight:
209451.49 Da
References
  1. Minai-Tehrani D, Fooladi N, Minoui S, Sobhani-Damavandifar Z, Aavani T, Heydarzadeh S, Attar F, Ghaffari M, Nazem H: Structural changes and inhibition of sucrase after binding of scopolamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 10;635(1-3):23-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.02.040. Epub 2010 Mar 15. [20230815 ]