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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:34 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:55 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3012
Identification
Common NameCiclopirox
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCiclopirox is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a synthetic antifungal agent for topical dermatologic use. [Wikipedia] Unlike antifungals such as itraconazole and terbinafine, which affect sterol synthesis, ciclopirox is thought to act through the chelation of polyvalent metal cations, such as Fe3+ and Al3+. These cations inhibit many enzymes, including cytochromes, thus disrupting cellular activities such as mitochondrial electron transport processes and energy production. Ciclopirox also appears to modify the plasma membrane of fungi, resulting in the disorganization of internal structures. The anti-inflammatory action of ciclopirox is most likely due to inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase. Ciclopirox may exert its effect by disrupting DNA repair, cell division signals and structures (mitotic spindles) as well as some elements of intracellular transport.
Compound Type
  • Antifungal Agent
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
6-Cyclohexyl-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(1H)-pyridinone
Batrafen
Ciclodan
Ciclopirox Olamin
Ciclopirox-Olamin
Ciclopiroxolamine
Ciclopiroxum
CNL8
HOE 296b
HOE-296b
Loprox
Mycoster
Penlac
Stieprox
Chemical FormulaC12H17NO2
Average Molecular Mass207.269 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass207.126 g/mol
CAS Registry Number29342-05-0
IUPAC Name6-cyclohexyl-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-1,2-dihydropyridin-2-one
Traditional Namepenlac
SMILESCC1=CC(=O)N(O)C(=C1)C1CCCCC1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H17NO2/c1-9-7-11(13(15)12(14)8-9)10-5-3-2-4-6-10/h7-8,10,15H,2-6H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=SCKYRAXSEDYPSA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyridinones. Pyridinones are compounds containing a pyridine ring, which bears a ketone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassHydropyridines
Direct ParentPyridinones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methylpyridine
  • Pyridinone
  • Dihydropyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point143°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.41e+00 g/L
LogP2.3
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.41 g/LALOGPS
logP2.15ALOGPS
logP2.22ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)6.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.54 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity60.91 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.12 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-02vi-1900000000-b0302ddc025a747a3484JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0390000000-1d9227c74bcc86583df3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-2690000000-963d9e37afedc3b4a600JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05mo-9600000000-de9b944829cc25a5681bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-3090000000-ac55f8f5496920dc9ca4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0490000000-6cd8e595360c6bddf33aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a6r-5900000000-7869913422c2e64d2101JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureRapidly absorbed after oral administration. Mean absorption of ciclopirox after application to nails of all twenty digits and adjacent 5 millimeters of skin once daily for 6 months in patients with dermatophytic onychomycoses was less than 5% of the applied dose. Ciclopirox olamine also penetrates into hair and through the epidermis and hair follicles into sebaceous glands and dermis.
Mechanism of ToxicityUnlike antifungals such as itraconazole and terbinafine, which affect sterol synthesis, ciclopirox is thought to act through the chelation of polyvalent metal cations, such as Fe3+ and Al3+. These cations inhibit many enzymes, including cytochromes, thus disrupting cellular activities such as mitochondrial electron transport processes and energy production. Ciclopirox also appears to modify the plasma membrane of fungi, resulting in the disorganization of internal structures. The anti-inflammatory action of ciclopirox is most likely due to inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase. ciclopirox may exert its effect by disrupting DNA repair, cell division signals and structures (mitotic spindles) as well as some elements of intracellular transport.
MetabolismGlucuronidation is the main metabolic pathway of ciclopirox. Route of Elimination: Most of the compound is excreted either unchanged or as glucuronide. After oral administration of 10 mg of radiolabeled drug (14C-ciclopirox) to healthy volunteers, approximately 96% of the radioactivity was excreted renally within 12 hours of administration. Ninety-four percent of the renally excreted radioactivity was in the form of glucuronides. Half Life: 1.7 hours for 1% topical solution.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: >10 ml/kg (Oral, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesUsed as a topical treatment in immunocompetent patients with mild to moderate onychomycosis of fingernails and toenails without lunula involvement, due to Trichophyton rubrum.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01188
HMDB IDHMDB15319
PubChem Compound ID2749
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1413
ChemSpider ID2647
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID453011
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDCiclopirox
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCiclopirox
References
Synthesis Reference

Lohaus, G.and Dittmar, W.; U.S. Patents 3,972,888; August 3, 1976; and 3,883,545; May 13, 1975; both assigned to Hoechst A .G.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Niewerth M, Kunze D, Seibold M, Schaller M, Korting HC, Hube B: Ciclopirox olamine treatment affects the expression pattern of Candida albicans genes encoding virulence factors, iron metabolism proteins, and drug resistance factors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jun;47(6):1805-17. [12760852 ]
  2. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  3. Sigle HC, Thewes S, Niewerth M, Korting HC, Schafer-Korting M, Hube B: Oxygen accessibility and iron levels are critical factors for the antifungal action of ciclopirox against Candida albicans. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 May;55(5):663-73. Epub 2005 Mar 24. [15790671 ]
  4. Qadripur SA: [Antimycotic therapy. 2. Antimycotic chemotherapeutic agents: imidazole derivatives, tolciclate, haloprogin, ciclopiroxolamin]. Fortschr Med. 1983 Mar 10;101(9):355-63. [6303928 ]
  5. Beikert FC, Le MT, Koeninger A, Technau K, Clad A: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis: focus on the vulva. Mycoses. 2011 Nov;54(6):e807-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2011.02030.x. Epub 2011 May 25. [21615545 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
Non-heme iron-containing dioxygenase that catalyzes the stereo-specific peroxidation of free and esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids generating a spectrum of bioactive lipid mediators. Converts arachidonic acid into 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid/12-HPETE and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid/15-HPETE. Also converts linoleic acid to 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid. May also act on (12S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid/(12S)-HPETE to produce hepoxilin A3. Probably plays an important role in the immune and inflammatory responses. Through the oxygenation of membrane-bound phosphatidylethanolamine in macrophages may favor clearance of apoptotic cells during inflammation by resident macrophages and prevent an autoimmune response associated with the clearance of apoptotic cells by inflammatory monocytes. In parallel, may regulate actin polymerization which is crucial for several biological processes, including macrophage function. May also regulate macrophage function through regulation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway. Finally, it is also involved in the cellular response to IL13/interleukin-13. In addition to its role in the immune and inflammatory responses, may play a role in epithelial wound healing in the cornea maybe through production of lipoxin A4. May also play a role in endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the regulation of bone mass.
Gene Name:
ALOX15
Uniprot ID:
P16050
Molecular Weight:
74803.795 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which promotes platelet activation and aggregation, vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, phenotypic changes, resistance to apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis. In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis.
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Monovalent cation:proton antiporter activity
Specific Function:
Solute transporter for tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, N-methylnicotinamide (NMN), metformin, creatinine, guanidine, procainamide, topotecan, estrone sulfate, acyclovir, ganciclovir and also the zwitterionic cephalosporin, cephalexin and cephradin. Seems to also play a role in the uptake of oxaliplatin (a new platinum anticancer agent). Able to transport paraquat (PQ or N,N-dimethyl-4-4'-bipiridinium); a widely used herbicid. Responsible for the secretion of cationic drugs across the brush border membranes.
Gene Name:
SLC47A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96FL8
Molecular Weight:
61921.585 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>500 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 81379
References
  1. Wittwer MB, Zur AA, Khuri N, Kido Y, Kosaka A, Zhang X, Morrissey KM, Sali A, Huang Y, Giacomini KM: Discovery of potent, selective multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1, SLC47A1) inhibitors through prescription drug profiling and computational modeling. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 14;56(3):781-95. doi: 10.1021/jm301302s. Epub 2013 Jan 22. [23241029 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Niewerth M, Kunze D, Seibold M, Schaller M, Korting HC, Hube B: Ciclopirox olamine treatment affects the expression pattern of Candida albicans genes encoding virulence factors, iron metabolism proteins, and drug resistance factors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jun;47(6):1805-17. [12760852 ]