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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:47 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3039
Identification
Common NameHexobarbital
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionHexobarbital is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative. [PubChem]Hexobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABA-A receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
Compound Type
  • Adjuvant
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Barbiturate
  • Drug
  • GABA Modulator
  • Hypnotic and Sedative
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
5-(1-Cyclohexen-1-yl)-1,5-dimethyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione
5-(1-Cyclohexen-1-yl)-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acid
5-Cyclohex-1-enyl-1,5-dimethyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione
Evipal
Evipan
Hexobarbitone
Methexenyl
Methylhexabital
Tobinal
Chemical FormulaC12H16N2O3
Average Molecular Mass236.267 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass236.116 g/mol
CAS Registry Number56-29-1
IUPAC Name5-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)-1,5-dimethyl-1,3-diazinane-2,4,6-trione
Traditional Namehexobarbital
SMILESCN1C(=O)N=C(O)C(C)(C2=CCCCC2)C1=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C12H16N2O3/c1-12(8-6-4-3-5-7-8)9(15)13-11(17)14(2)10(12)16/h6H,3-5,7H2,1-2H3,(H,13,15,17)
InChI KeyInChIKey=UYXAWHWODHRRMR-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyrimidones. Pyrimidones are compounds that contain a pyrimidine ring, which bears a ketone. Pyrimidine is a 6-membered ring consisting of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen centers at the 1- and 3- ring positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives
Direct ParentPyrimidones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydropyrimidine
  • 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine
  • Dicarboximide
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point146.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility435 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP1.98
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.51 g/LALOGPS
logP1.8ALOGPS
logP1.25ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.41ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.48 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity61.95 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.14 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00gi-9420000000-001b8f1462933b4fb9c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00gi-9420000000-001b8f1462933b4fb9c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-3940000000-827e61b1deec4916f579JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-1190000000-58f9b3cb0025cd8911aaJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-2920000000-e4d6ce12b6d33fff56d8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uxu-9100000000-55244be11c0d8667c413JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000f-7980000000-db4b09996693417c3e09JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bt9-5900000000-3fac68a4cc2e19e26087JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9200000000-8495751984d2901a8826JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-05cu-9310000000-eeec363075c613d35696JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral
Mechanism of ToxicityHexobarbital binds at a distinct binding site associated with a Cl- ionopore at the GABA-A receptor, increasing the duration of time for which the Cl- ionopore is open. The post-synaptic inhibitory effect of GABA in the thalamus is, therefore, prolonged.
MetabolismHepatic.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThey cause slurred speech, disorientation and "drunken" behavior. They are physically and psychologically addictive. They cause slurred speech, disorientation and "drunken" behavior. They are physically and psychologically addictive.
SymptomsSymptoms of an overdose typically include sluggishness, incoordination, difficulty in thinking, slowness of speech, faulty judgment, drowsiness or coma, shallow breathing, staggering, and in severe cases coma and death.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01355
HMDB IDHMDB15444
PubChem Compound ID3608
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL7728
ChemSpider ID3482
KEGG IDC11723
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID5706
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDHexobarbital
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHexobarbital
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3039.pdf
General References
  1. Takenoshita R, Toki S: [New aspects of hexobarbital metabolism: stereoselective metabolism, new metabolic pathway via GSH conjugation, and 3-hydroxyhexobarbital dehydrogenases]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2004 Dec;124(12):857-71. [15577260 ]
  2. Wahlstrom G: A study of the duration of acute tolerance induced with hexobarbital in male rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Apr;59(4):945-8. [9586853 ]
  3. Korkmaz S, Ljungblad E, Wahlstrom G: Interaction between flumazenil and the anesthetic effects of hexobarbital in the rat. Brain Res. 1995 Apr 10;676(2):371-7. [7614008 ]
  4. Dall V, Orntoft U, Schmidt A, Nordholm L: Interaction of the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX with hexobarbital. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 Sep;46(1):73-6. [8255925 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Sirna binding
Specific Function:
Binds CpG islands in promoters where the DNA is methylated at position 5 of cytosine within CpG dinucleotides. Binds hemimethylated DNA as well. Recruits histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases. Acts as transcriptional repressor and plays a role in gene silencing. Functions as a scaffold protein, targeting GATAD2A and GATAD2B to chromatin to promote repression. May enhance the activation of some unmethylated cAMP-responsive promoters.
Gene Name:
MBD2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBB5
Molecular Weight:
43254.3 Da
References
  1. Koleva M, Dimova S: Effect of long-term multiple nifedipine administration on the antinociceptive activity of acetaminophen. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Dec;23(10):537-40. [11957744 ]
  2. Gopinath C, Ford JH: The role of microsomal hydroxylases in the modification of chloroform hepatotoxicity in rats. Br J Exp Pathol. 1975 Oct;56(5):412-22. [174709 ]
  3. Sachan DS, Su PK: Effects of levels of feed restriction on in vivo and in vitro alterations in drug metabolism and associated enzymes. Drug Nutr Interact. 1986;4(4):363-70. [3792217 ]
  4. Kadiiska M, Stoytchev T, Serbinova E: Effect of some heavy metal salts on hepatic monooxygenases after subchronic exposure. Arch Toxicol Suppl. 1985;8:313-5. [3868358 ]
  5. Lindner E, Beyhl FE: Induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes caused by hexobarbital. Experientia. 1978 Feb 15;34(2):226-7. [414931 ]
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane permeable to sodium ions.
Gene Name:
CHRNA4
Uniprot ID:
P43681
Molecular Weight:
69956.47 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Arias HR, Bhumireddy P: Anesthetics as chemical tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005 Oct;6(5):451-72. [16248797 ]
  3. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA3
Uniprot ID:
P34903
Molecular Weight:
55164.055 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA6
Uniprot ID:
Q16445
Molecular Weight:
51023.69 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]
  2. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
General Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.
Gene Name:
GRIA2
Uniprot ID:
P42262
Molecular Weight:
98820.32 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General Function:
Kainate selective glutamate receptor activity
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. May be involved in the transmission of light information from the retina to the hypothalamus. Modulates cell surface expression of NETO2 (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIK2
Uniprot ID:
Q13002
Molecular Weight:
102582.475 Da
References
  1. Yamakura T, Bertaccini E, Trudell JR, Harris RA: Anesthetics and ion channels: molecular models and sites of action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2001;41:23-51. [11264449 ]
  2. Krasowski MD, Harrison NL: General anaesthetic actions on ligand-gated ion channels. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999 Aug 15;55(10):1278-303. [10487207 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA4
Uniprot ID:
P48169
Molecular Weight:
61622.645 Da
References
  1. Mehta AK, Ticku MK: An update on GABAA receptors. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999 Apr;29(2-3):196-217. [10209232 ]