Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-11-20 00:56:56 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:14 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3622
Identification
Common NameLauroyl sarcosine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionLauroyl sarcosine is a condensation product of natural fatty acids with sarcosine, which is a natural amino acid found in muscles and other body tissues. Acyl sarcosines are considered modifiŽed fatty acids in which the hydrocarbon chains are interrupted by an amidomethyl group in the alpha position. They are used as hair-conditioning agents and surfactant-cleansing agents in cosmetics, as well as to improve wetting and penetration of topical pharmaceutical products. Acyl sarcosines and their sodium salts are also used in the metal finishing and processing industries for their crystal modifying, anti-rust, and anti-corrosion properties. (8, 4)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(Dodecanoyl(methyl)amino)acetic acid
Hamposyl l
Lauroylsarcosine
Maprosyl l
N-dodecanoyl-n-methylglycine
N-lauroyl sarcosinate
N-lauroyl-n-methylaminoacetic acid
n-lauroyl-Sarcosine
N-lauroyl-Sarcosine (8CI)
N-lauroylsarcosine
N-lauroylsarcosine sodium salt solution
N-laurylsarcosine
N-Methyl-N-(1-oxododecyl) glycine
N-methyl-N-(1-oxododecyl)-Glycine
Sarcosyl l
Sarkosyl
Sarkosyl l
Chemical FormulaC15H29NO3
Average Molecular Mass271.396 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass271.215 g/mol
CAS Registry Number97-78-9
IUPAC Name2-(N-methyldodecanamido)acetic acid
Traditional Namegardol
SMILESCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)N(C)CC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C15H29NO3/c1-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-14(17)16(2)13-15(18)19/h3-13H2,1-2H3,(H,18,19)
InChI KeyInChIKey=BACYUWVYYTXETD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-alpha amino acids. N-acyl-alpha amino acids are compounds containing an alpha amino acid which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentN-acyl-alpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point28-36°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0156 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.016 g/LALOGPS
logP3.82ALOGPS
logP3.6ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.61 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity76.38 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability33.12 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-3190000000-f5691b835c5d230bfb41View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-006x-9320000000-f31dcd8e7a50da48d279View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-006x-9200000000-d478a6c9401aaf7f8942View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-83fae2d4e0ac59334f5dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00fr-3290000000-6eb8787123d5468c024cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-022l-9310000000-908cffbe1ba38e6745a5View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (4) ; inhalation (4) ; dermal (4)
Mechanism of ToxicityWhile acyl sarcosines themselves are not toxic, they are nitrosating agents. Nitrosating agents may decompose and/or react to cause nitrosamine contamination. Nitrosamines are produced from secondary amines and amides in the presence of nitrite ions and are believed to be carcinogenic. The particular nitrosamine produced by acyl sarcosines is N-nitrososarcosine. Once in the body, nitrosamines are activated by cytochrome P-450 enzymes. They are then believed to induce their carcinogenic effects by forming DNA adducts at the N- and O-atoms. (6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 4)
MetabolismAcyl sarcosines can be absorbed following oral or dermal contact, while nitrosamines can enter the body via ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact. Once in the body, nitrosamines are metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes, which essentially activates them into carcinogens. Sarcosine is metabolized to glycine by the enzyme sarcosine dehydrogenase. (1, 2, 8)
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity (not listed by IARC). (5)
Uses/SourcesAcyl sarcosines are used as hair-conditioning agents and surfactant-cleansing agents in cosmetics, as well as to improve wetting and penetration of topical pharmaceutical products. Acyl sarcosines and their sodium salts are also used in the metal finishing and processing industries for their crystal modifying, anti-rust, and anti-corrosion properties. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcyl sarcosines may cause irritation to the skin and eyes. They may also react to produce N-nitrososarcosine, which is believed to be carcinogenic. (4)
SymptomsAcyl sarcosines may cause irritation to the skin and eyes. (4)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID7348
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1907464
ChemSpider ID7071
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3622.pdf
General References
  1. Oyama T, Sugio K, Uramoto H, Iwata T, Onitsuka T, Isse T, Nozoe T, Kagawa N, Yasumoto K, Kawamoto T: Increased cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bronchial epithelium of heavy smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma carries a poor prognosis. Front Biosci. 2007 May 1;12:4497-503. [17485391 ]
  2. Sasaki S, Sata F, Katoh S, Saijo Y, Nakajima S, Washino N, Konishi K, Ban S, Ishizuka M, Kishi R: Adverse birth outcomes associated with maternal smoking and polymorphisms in the N-Nitrosamine-metabolizing enzyme genes NQO1 and CYP2E1. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Mar 15;167(6):719-26. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwm360. Epub 2008 Jan 23. [18218609 ]
  3. Drablos F, Feyzi E, Aas PA, Vaagbo CB, Kavli B, Bratlie MS, Pena-Diaz J, Otterlei M, Slupphaug G, Krokan HE: Alkylation damage in DNA and RNA--repair mechanisms and medical significance. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004 Nov 2;3(11):1389-407. [15380096 ]
  4. Lanigan RS: Final report on the safety assessment of Cocoyl Sarcosine, Lauroyl Sarcosine, Myristoyl Sarcosine, Oleoyl Sarcosine, Stearoyl Sarcosine, Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Myristoyl Sarcosinate, Ammonium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, and Ammonium Lauroyl Sarcosinate. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 1:1-14. [11358107 ]
  5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Nitrosamine. Last Updated 16 November 2009. [Link]
  7. Organic Natural Health (1998). Cancer Causing Toxic Chemical Ingredients in Cosmetic and Skin Care Products. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Sarcosine. Last Updated 16 October 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

1. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Drablos F, Feyzi E, Aas PA, Vaagbo CB, Kavli B, Bratlie MS, Pena-Diaz J, Otterlei M, Slupphaug G, Krokan HE: Alkylation damage in DNA and RNA--repair mechanisms and medical significance. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004 Nov 2;3(11):1389-407. [15380096 ]
  2. Lanigan RS: Final report on the safety assessment of Cocoyl Sarcosine, Lauroyl Sarcosine, Myristoyl Sarcosine, Oleoyl Sarcosine, Stearoyl Sarcosine, Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Myristoyl Sarcosinate, Ammonium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, and Ammonium Lauroyl Sarcosinate. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 1:1-14. [11358107 ]
  3. Organic Natural Health (1998). Cancer Causing Toxic Chemical Ingredients in Cosmetic and Skin Care Products. [Link]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. RARA plays an essential role in the regulation of retinoic acid-induced germ cell development during spermatogenesis. Has a role in the survival of early spermatocytes at the beginning prophase of meiosis. In Sertoli cells, may promote the survival and development of early meiotic prophase spermatocytes. In concert with RARG, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity). Regulates expression of target genes in a ligand-dependent manner by recruiting chromatin complexes containing KMT2E/MLL5. Mediates retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis.
Gene Name:
RARA
Uniprot ID:
P10276
Molecular Weight:
50770.805 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC502.37 uMATG_RARa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.45 uMTox21_PPARg_BLA_Agonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]