You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:48:00 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4160
Identification
Common NameKynurenic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionKynurenic acid is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a well-known endogenous antagonist of the glutamate ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alphaamino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid and kainate receptors and of the nicotine cholinergic subtype alpha 7 receptors. KYNA neuroprotective and anticonvulsive activities have been demonstrated in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Because of KYNA's neuromodulatory character, its involvement has been speculatively linked to the pathogenesis of a number of neurological conditions including those in the ageing process. Different patterns of abnormalities in various stages of KYNA metabolism in the CNS have been reported in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. In HIV-1-infected patients and in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis a marked rise of KYNA metabolism was seen. In the ageing process KYNA metabolism in the CNS of rats shows a characteristic pattern of changes throughout the life span. A marked increase of the KYNA content in the CNS occurs before the birth, followed by a dramatic decline on the day of birth. A low activity was seen during ontogenesis, and a slow and progressive enhancement occurs during maturation and ageing. This remarkable profile of KYNA metabolism alterations in the mammalian brain has been suggested to result from the development of the organisation of neuronal connections and synaptic plasticity, development of receptor recognition sites, maturation and ageing. There is significant evidence that KYNA can improve cognition and memory, but it has also been demonstrated that it interferes with working memory. Impairment of cognitive function in various neurodegenerative disorders is accompanied by profound reduction and/or elevation of KYNA metabolism. The view that enhancement of CNS KYNA levels could underlie cognitive decline is supported by the increased KYNA metabolism in Alzheimer's disease, by the increased KYNA metabolism in down's syndrome and the enhancement of KYNA function during the early stage of Huntington's disease. Kynurenic acid is the only endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist identified up to now, that mediates glutamatergic hypofunction. Schizophrenia is a disorder of dopaminergic neurotransmission, but modulation of the dopaminergic system by glutamatergic neurotransmission seems to play a key role. Despite the NMDA receptor antagonism, kynurenic acid also blocks, in lower doses, the nicotinergic acetycholine receptor, i.e., increased kynurenic acid levels can explain psychotic symptoms and cognitive deterioration. Kynurenic acid levels are described to be higher in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in critical central nervous system (CNS) regions of schizophrenics as compared to controls. (1, 2).
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Carboxy-4-hydroxyquinoline
4-Hydroxy-2-Quinolinecarboxylic acid
4-Hydroxy-Quinaldate
4-Hydroxy-Quinaldic acid
4-Hydroxyquinaldate
4-Hydroxyquinaldic acid
4-Hydroxyquinaldinate
4-Hydroxyquinaldinic acid
4-Hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylate
4-Hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid
Kynurenate
Quinurenic acid
Chemical FormulaC10H7NO3
Average Molecular Mass189.168 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass189.043 g/mol
CAS Registry Number492-27-3
IUPAC Name4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameacid, kynurenic
SMILESOC(=O)C1=CC(=O)C2=CC=CC=C2N1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H7NO3/c12-9-5-8(10(13)14)11-7-4-2-1-3-6(7)9/h1-5H,(H,11,12)(H,13,14)
InChI KeyInChIKey=HCZHHEIFKROPDY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassQuinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassQuinoline carboxylic acids
Direct ParentQuinoline carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Quinoline-2-carboxylic acid
  • Dihydroquinolone
  • Dihydroquinoline
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyridine
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063 map00380
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point280°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.95 g/LALOGPS
logP1.16ALOGPS
logP1.58ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.17ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.4 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity52.32 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-1985000000-f1c74ffc481c3d0faaa22014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0159-3895000000-6ba2750c5a9d9754abcc2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-0498000000-3db9df2c3d8456d7ba632017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-1985000000-f1c74ffc481c3d0faaa22017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-3895000000-6ba2750c5a9d9754abcc2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0159-1895000000-e25b66b0b42d1928cc672017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-02ga-1900000000-8c67ab2acdc02b88af2b2016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9740000000-a7c5c056d48055e0d44f2017-10-06View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-0900000000-7a5c54ced5b83f291e672012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0900000000-e6b451ee354ed27171602012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9500000000-887e5157431b2908f31e2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0006-1900000000-06f7059894cc245cb3442012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-89a88f44f08b8b68d5c12012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-014l-0900000000-3a256522dd8694fe04c02017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-000f-0900000000-a4b194b85fef656b9b652017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-7862c532805b6036dc672017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-5fe3171fdaece30b78c82017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-df3b5b36289798800ad82017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-d4c11672b9479b2cd4b62017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-89a88f44f08b8b68d5c12017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-9c26ffa9c04aa03d60f52017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-6a8662ef19d900499a552017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-d69a430b0eb34f38ad542017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-d0ef7c769d4985e856672017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-01ox-0900000000-2a593c8017254be4a3872017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-01ox-0900000000-59f3559c0b95c9411d2c2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-02tc-0900000000-57dbbfb8e12c60951d772017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-878dcda0ee5ec971fa722016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-0900000000-92fe5294ec4a771f14e02016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-1900000000-fa8b36fb6db8e403b7112016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-9cede81ef6dfc45f5f7a2016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000f-0900000000-0d5cf046565b518442d52016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-2900000000-2c420ff1e596665270052016-09-12View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, DMSO-d6, experimental)Not Available2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)Not Available2016-10-22View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)Not Available2016-10-22View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-05View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as kynurenic acid are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (4). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (5).
MetabolismUremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00715
PubChem Compound ID3845
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL299155
ChemSpider ID3712
KEGG IDC01717
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID18344
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDKYA
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkKynurenic acid
References
Synthesis ReferenceStone, T. W. Development and therapeutic potential of kynurenic acid and kynurenine derivatives for neuroprotection. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (2000), 21(4), 149-154.
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Muller N, Schwarz M: Schizophrenia as an inflammation-mediated dysbalance of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Neurotox Res. 2006 Oct;10(2):131-48. [17062375 ]
  2. Kepplinger B, Baran H, Kainz A, Ferraz-Leite H, Newcombe J, Kalina P: Age-related increase of kynurenic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid - IgG and beta2-microglobulin changes. Neurosignals. 2005;14(3):126-35. [16088227 ]
  3. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  4. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  5. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  6. Parada-Turska J, Rzeski W, Zgrajka W, Majdan M, Kandefer-Szerszen M, Turski W: Kynurenic acid, an endogenous constituent of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid, inhibits proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro. Rheumatol Int. 2006 Mar;26(5):422-6. Epub 2005 Oct 12. [16220290 ]
  7. Amirkhani A, Heldin E, Markides KE, Bergquist J: Quantitation of tryptophan, kynurenine and kynurenic acid in human plasma by capillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Nov 25;780(2):381-7. [12401365 ]
  8. Ilzecka J, Kocki T, Stelmasiak Z, Turski WA: Endogenous protectant kynurenic acid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 2003 Jun;107(6):412-8. [12757473 ]
  9. Bapurao S, Krishnaswamy K: Vitamin B6 nutritional status of pellagrins and their leucine tolerance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 May;31(5):819-24. [206127 ]
  10. Nilsson LK, Nordin C, Jonsson EG, Engberg G, Linderholm KR, Erhardt S: Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid in male and female controls - correlation with monoamine metabolites and influences of confounding factors. J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Jan-Feb;41(1-2):144-51. Epub 2006 Jan 24. [16434056 ]
  11. Milart P, Sikorski R: [Kynurenic acid concentration in blood and urine during normal pregnancy]. Ginekol Pol. 1998 Dec;69(12):968-73. [10224760 ]
  12. Moroni F, Russi P, Lombardi G, Beni M, Carla V: Presence of kynurenic acid in the mammalian brain. J Neurochem. 1988 Jul;51(1):177-80. [3379401 ]
  13. Turski WA, Nakamura M, Todd WP, Carpenter BK, Whetsell WO Jr, Schwarcz R: Identification and quantification of kynurenic acid in human brain tissue. Brain Res. 1988 Jun 28;454(1-2):164-9. [3409000 ]
  14. Medana IM, Hien TT, Day NP, Phu NH, Mai NT, Chu'ong LV, Chau TT, Taylor A, Salahifar H, Stocker R, Smythe G, Turner GD, Farrar J, White NJ, Hunt NH: The clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid levels of kynurenine pathway metabolites and lactate in severe malaria. J Infect Dis. 2002 Mar 1;185(5):650-6. Epub 2002 Feb 14. [11865422 ]
  15. Connick JH, Carla V, Moroni F, Stone TW: Increase in kynurenic acid in Huntington's disease motor cortex. J Neurochem. 1989 Mar;52(3):985-7. [2521895 ]
  16. Swartz KJ, Matson WR, MacGarvey U, Ryan EA, Beal MF: Measurement of kynurenic acid in mammalian brain extracts and cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric and coulometric electrode array detection. Anal Biochem. 1990 Mar;185(2):363-76. [2339792 ]
  17. Baran H, Cairns N, Lubec B, Lubec G: Increased kynurenic acid levels and decreased brain kynurenine aminotransferase I in patients with Down syndrome. Life Sci. 1996;58(21):1891-9. [8637415 ]
  18. Medana IM, Day NP, Salahifar-Sabet H, Stocker R, Smythe G, Bwanaisa L, Njobvu A, Kayira K, Turner GD, Taylor TE, Hunt NH: Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in the cerebrospinal fluid of Malawian children with malaria. J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep 15;188(6):844-9. Epub 2003 Sep 9. [12964115 ]
  19. Heyes MP, Saito K, Crowley JS, Davis LE, Demitrack MA, Der M, Dilling LA, Elia J, Kruesi MJ, Lackner A, et al.: Quinolinic acid and kynurenine pathway metabolism in inflammatory and non-inflammatory neurological disease. Brain. 1992 Oct;115 ( Pt 5):1249-73. [1422788 ]
  20. Beal MF, Matson WR, Storey E, Milbury P, Ryan EA, Ogawa T, Bird ED: Kynurenic acid concentrations are reduced in Huntington's disease cerebral cortex. J Neurol Sci. 1992 Mar;108(1):80-7. [1385624 ]
  21. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function:
Acts as a receptor for kynurenic acid, an intermediate in the tryptophan metabolic pathway. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G-proteins that elicit calcium mobilization and inositol phosphate production through G(qi/o) proteins.
Gene Name:
GPR35
Uniprot ID:
Q9HC97
Molecular Weight:
34071.89 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory137 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50001262
References
  1. Thimm D, Funke M, Meyer A, Muller CE: 6-Bromo-8-(4-[(3)H]methoxybenzamido)-4-oxo-4H-chromene-2-carboxylic Acid: a powerful tool for studying orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. J Med Chem. 2013 Sep 12;56(17):7084-99. doi: 10.1021/jm4009373. Epub 2013 Aug 15. [23888932 ]
  2. Zhao P, Sharir H, Kapur A, Cowan A, Geller EB, Adler MW, Seltzman HH, Reggio PH, Heynen-Genel S, Sauer M, Chung TD, Bai Y, Chen W, Caron MG, Barak LS, Abood ME: Targeting of the orphan receptor GPR35 by pamoic acid: a potent activator of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and beta-arrestin2 with antinociceptive activity. Mol Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;78(4):560-8. doi: 10.1124/mol.110.066746. Epub 2010 Jul 22. [20826425 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. DiNatale BC, Murray IA, Schroeder JC, Flaveny CA, Lahoti TS, Laurenzana EM, Omiecinski CJ, Perdew GH: Kynurenic acid is a potent endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that synergistically induces interleukin-6 in the presence of inflammatory signaling. Toxicol Sci. 2010 May;115(1):89-97. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq024. Epub 2010 Jan 27. [20106948 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is blocked by alpha-bungarotoxin.
Gene Name:
CHRNA7
Uniprot ID:
P36544
Molecular Weight:
56448.925 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC507 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50001262
References
  1. Funke M, Thimm D, Schiedel AC, Muller CE: 8-Benzamidochromen-4-one-2-carboxylic acids: potent and selective agonists for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. J Med Chem. 2013 Jun 27;56(12):5182-97. doi: 10.1021/jm400587g. Epub 2013 Jun 17. [23713606 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]