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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:48:16 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4162
Identification
Common NameNeopterin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionNeopterin is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Neopterin is a pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
6-(D-Erythro-1,2,3-Trihydroxypropyl)pterin
6-D-Erythro-Neopterin
D-Erythro-Neopterin
D-Neopterin
Neopterine
[S-(R*,S*)]-2-Amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-1H-pteridin-4-on
[S-(R*,S*)]-2-amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-1H-pteridin-4-one
[S-(R*,S*)]-2-amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-1H-pteridine-4-one
Chemical FormulaC9H11N5O4
Average Molecular Mass253.215 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass253.081 g/mol
CAS Registry Number2009-64-5
IUPAC Name2-amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-3,4-dihydropteridin-4-one
Traditional Name2-amino-6-(1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-3H-pteridin-4-one
SMILESOCC(O)C(O)C1=NC2=C(NC(=N)N=C2O)N=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C9H11N5O4/c10-9-13-7-5(8(18)14-9)12-3(1-11-7)6(17)4(16)2-15/h1,4,6,15-17H,2H2,(H3,10,11,13,14,18)
InChI KeyInChIKey=BMQYVXCPAOLZOK-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biopterins and derivatives. These are coenzymes containing a 2-amino-pteridine-4-one derivative. They are mainly synthesized in several parts of the body, including the pineal gland.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPteridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPterins and derivatives
Direct ParentBiopterins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Biopterin
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrazine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Activated T-Lymphocytes
  • Bone Marrow
  • Brain
  • Central Nervous System
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Pancreas
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • T-Lymphocyte
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Pterine BiosynthesisSMP00005 map00790
Hyperphenylalaninemia due to dhpr-deficiencySMP00489 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.26 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.99ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area153.95 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity60.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.36 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01ox-9720000000-287de905bc263a1d3fef2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0pb9-3393300000-91821528c6f566d171742017-10-06View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_4) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_5) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_4) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_5) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_6) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_7) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_8) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_9) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_10) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_2_11) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_3_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_3_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_3_4) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_3_5) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_3_6) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0090000000-3a09212908092a492f4d2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-054y-0920000000-6241d1b694e32019a9272012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-05mp-4900000000-877883fea7e0d415c8402012-07-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-bd6cd1a1bfbd14b712cf2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0f79-1190000000-2cfad581ae89edd75d7a2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dm-9610000000-935c14541b2551e1a2ae2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udl-1490000000-873c74c47753e32ed9f42015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01ox-4950000000-0c17274f2f41e583bbd62015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9400000000-8ae2879ae5357154c5d12015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udr-0190000000-5eeae3db4e4f85b1ce392021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0o70-0390000000-a441f62b61df43ffd7a62021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00b9-0910000000-a539711a0c44dc33cde82021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0910000000-0a62087f9b31592e385c2021-09-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01ox-0900000000-6854f20331ecc6eb7d8d2021-09-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-6910000000-b1ce97d80b5467300fd92021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-16View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-05View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as neopterin are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (2). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (3).
MetabolismUremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02385
HMDB IDHMDB00845
PubChem Compound ID4455
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID4300
KEGG IDC05926
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNEO
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNeopterin
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  4. Azumagawa K, Suzuki S, Tanabe T, Wakamiya E, Kawamura N, Tamai H: Neopterin, biopterin, and nitric oxide concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with central nervous system infections. Brain Dev. 2003 Apr;25(3):200-2. [12689700 ]
  5. Shaw CE, Dunbar PR, Macaulay HA, Neale TJ: Measurement of immune markers in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients during clinical remission. J Neurol. 1995 Jan;242(2):53-8. [7707089 ]
  6. Gisslen M, Chiodi F, Fuchs D, Norkrans G, Svennerholm B, Wachter H, Hagberg L: Markers of immune stimulation in the cerebrospinal fluid during HIV infection: a longitudinal study. Scand J Infect Dis. 1994;26(5):523-33. [7855550 ]
  7. Reibnegger GJ, Bichler AH, Dapunt O, Fuchs DN, Fuith LC, Hausen A, Hetzel HM, Lutz H, Werner ER, Wachter H: Neopterin as a prognostic indicator in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Cancer Res. 1986 Feb;46(2):950-5. [3940654 ]
  8. Niederwieser D, Huber C, Wachter H: [Neopterin, a new biochemical marker for the detection of activated T lymphocytes]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1983 Mar 4;95(5):161-4. [6602425 ]
  9. Abdulle S, Hagberg L, Svennerholm B, Fuchs D, Gisslen M: Continuing intrathecal immunoactivation despite two years of effective antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2002 Nov 8;16(16):2145-9. [12409735 ]
  10. Niederwieser A, Curtius HC: Tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic pathway and deficiency. Enzyme. 1987;38(1-4):302-11. [3326735 ]
  11. Kokcam I, Naziroglu M: Effects of vitamin E supplementation on blood antioxidants levels in patients with Behcet's disease. Clin Biochem. 2002 Nov;35(8):633-9. [12498998 ]
  12. Margreiter R, Aichberger C, Konigsrainer A, Reibnegger G, Weiss G, Wachter H: Biliary neopterin for differentiation between liver allograft rejection and viral graft infection. Transpl Int. 1992;5 Suppl 1:S199-200. [14621776 ]
  13. Steiner G, Zlabinger G, Karamehic J, Pohanka E, Kovarik J, Woloszczuk W: Interferon-gamma, neopterin, and interleukin-2 receptor levels in the serum of kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 1990 Aug;22(4):1857-8. [2117813 ]
  14. Inci Fisenk B, Us D, Ozcebe OI, Hascelik G: The value of increased neopterin levels in reducing transfusion-transmitted virus infections: detection of a donation from a HBsAg positive chronic carrier by screening of neopterin in Turkish blood donors. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(8):599-604. [16099770 ]
  15. Antoniello S, Auletta M, Magri P, Russo N: Serum neopterin levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1992 Nov;373(11):1165-8. [1282321 ]
  16. Barani J, Nilsson JA, Mattiasson I, Lindblad B, Gottsater A: Inflammatory mediators are associated with 1-year mortality in critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Jul;42(1):75-80. [16012455 ]
  17. Millner MM, Franthal W, Thalhammer GH, Berghold A, Aigner RM, Fuger GF, Reibnegger G: Neopterin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum as an aid in differentiating central nervous system and peripheral infections in children. Clin Chem. 1998 Jan;44(1):161-7. [9550574 ]
  18. Muller TF, Trosch F, Ebel H, Grussner RW, Feiber H, Goke B, Greger B, Lange H: Pancreas-specific protein (PASP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and neopterin (NEOP) in the diagnosis of rejection after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. Transpl Int. 1997;10(3):185-91. [9163857 ]
  19. Beckham JC, Caldwell DS, Peterson BL, Pippen AM, Currie MS, Keefe FJ, Weinberg JB: Disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis: relationships of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, soluble interleukin 2-receptor, soluble CD4/CD8 ratio, neopterin, and fibrin D-dimer to traditional severity and functional measures. J Clin Immunol. 1992 Sep;12(5):353-61. [1430106 ]
  20. Prior C, Bollbach R, Fuchs D, Hausen A, Judmaier G, Niederwieser D, Reibnegger G, Rotthauwe HW, Werner ER, Wachter H: Urinary neopterin, a marker of clinical activity in patients with Crohn's disease. Clin Chim Acta. 1986 Feb 28;155(1):11-21. [3698305 ]
  21. Hagberg L, Dotevall L, Norkrans G, Larsson M, Wachter H, Fuchs D: Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin concentrations in central nervous system infection. J Infect Dis. 1993 Nov;168(5):1285-8. [8228365 ]
  22. Toncheva D, Galabov AS, Laich A, Atanassova S, Kamarinchev B, Dimitrov T, Fuchs D: Urinary neopterin concentrations in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Kidney Int. 2003 Nov;64(5):1817-21. [14531816 ]
  23. Heyes MP, Saito K, Milstien S, Schiff SJ: Quinolinic acid in tumors, hemorrhage and bacterial infections of the central nervous system in children. J Neurol Sci. 1995 Nov;133(1-2):112-8. [8583213 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]