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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:48:25 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4164
Identification
Common NameTrimethylamine N-oxide
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionTMAO is a uremic toxin, an osmolyte and an atherotoxin (causing atherosclerotic plaques). Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an oxidation product of trimethylamine and a common metabolite in animals and humans. In particular, trimethylamine-N-oxide is biosynthesized endogenously from trimethylamine, which is derived from choline, which can be derived from dietary lecithin (phosphatidylcholines) or dietary carnitine. TMAO decomposes to trimethylamine (TMA), which is the main odorant that is characteristic of degrading seafood. TMAO is an osmolyte that the body will use to counteract the effects of increased concentrations of urea (due to kidney failure) and high levels can be used as a biomarker for kidney problems. Fish odor syndrome or trimethylaminuria is a defect in the production of the enzyme flavin containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) causing incomplete breakdown of trimethylamine from choline-containing food into trimethylamine oxide. Trimethylamine then builds up and is released in the person's sweat, urine, and breath, giving off a strong fishy odor. The concentration of TMAO in the blood increases after consuming foods containing carnitine or lecithin (phosphatidylcholines), if the bacteria that convert those substances to TMAO are present in the gut. High concentrations of carnitine are found in red meat, some energy drinks, and certain dietary supplements; lecithin is found in eggs and is commonly used as an ingredient in processed food. High levels of TMAO are found in many seafoods. Some types of normal gut bacteria (e.g. species of Acinetobacter) in the human gut convert dietary carnitine and dietary lecithin to TMAO. TMAO alters cholesterol metabolism in the intestines, in the liver and in arterial wall. When TMAO is present, cholesterol metabolism is altered and there is an increased deposition of cholesterol within, and decreased removal of cholesterol from, peripheral cells such as those in the artery wall (1, 2, 3).
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
N,N-Dimethylmethanamine N-oxide
TMA-oxide
TMAO
Trimethylamine oxide
Trimethylamine-N-oxide
Triox
Chemical FormulaC3H9NO
Average Molecular Mass75.110 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass75.068 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1184-78-7
IUPAC NameN,N-dimethylmethanamine oxide
Traditional Nametrimethylamine-n-oxide
SMILESCN(C)(C)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H9NO/c1-4(2,3)5/h1-3H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=UYPYRKYUKCHHIB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as trialkyl amine oxides. These are hydrocarbyl derivatives of the aminoxide anion, with the general formula R3N+[O-] or R3N=O, where R is an alkyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassAminoxides
Direct ParentTrialkyl amine oxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Trialkyl amine oxide
  • Trisubstituted n-oxide
  • N-oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Epidermis
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceColorless solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point95 - 99°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility454 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility57.8 g/LALOGPS
logP-2ALOGPS
logP-0.93ChemAxon
logS-0.11ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.66ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area23.06 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity22.03 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-06vi-9000000000-426384c1c05ab5b584be2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-056r-9000000000-9ba99fcfab36000c77572012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-77dcb5a2685e3154e9f62012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-052f-9000000000-dabc3f786696374842042012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-0e637352d88abe7c2b0a2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-d155aab0cf63bd6365ca2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-54c4798b9d38df37e8a22012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-7b4ea1bc9a14eef87f352012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-1e5a0675e8b58686f9752012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-056r-9000000000-aeb64eb28a53521764cf2012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-0e637352d88abe7c2b0a2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-d155aab0cf63bd6365ca2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-54c4798b9d38df37e8a22017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-7b4ea1bc9a14eef87f352017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-7f27d29305df82f75dfe2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-056r-9000000000-72bdd3a0798c280240382017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-920d8f0833b6b23281b12021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-29079a6ae8a064f5386f2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-36986ad320354e7e83d52021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-8d763316b01d6d7682a22021-09-20View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-ff78646c3e3f75afce162017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-ed1a5c9cf14802f3a1172017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-056r-9000000000-388e7087787fdbab7a182017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6298f48fa1844aa5f4382017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9ca491949ce95689c50c2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-89485046f830076c92342017-09-01View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-056r-9000000000-28a96c1111fa94368c762014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 125 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, experimental)Not Available2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 25.16 MHz, D2O, experimental)Not Available2014-09-23View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-29View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2021-10-10View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-05View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as TMAO are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (5). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (6). TMAO appears to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in part by promoting cholesterol accumulation within macrophages, perhaps by inducing scavenger receptors such as CD36 and SRA1, both of which are involved in the uptake of modified lipoproteins (20).
MetabolismTrimethylamine-N-oxide is biosynthesized in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA), which is derived from choline. Flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) has been implicated in the oxidation of TMA since individuals with mutations in FMO3 present with accumulation of TMA levels, causing fish malodor syndrome. TMAO is secreted in the urine and is not metabolized any further.
Toxicity Values>100 uM in blood is usually indicative of uremia
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesTMAO is produced endogenously in the body. High levels are found in fish. It is a uremic toxic and an atherotoxin or atherogenic. It is also an osmolyte.
Minimum Risk Level>75 uM in blood
Health EffectsHigh endogenous levels of TMAO in the blood (>100 uM) can lead to uremia which can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Chronically high levels of TMAO in the blood can also lead to the development of atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic plaques.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, TMAO can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present. Symptoms of atherosclerosis include angina, chest pain, breathlessness, nausea, dizziness, leg pains, weakness or numbness in the legs, erectile dysfunction, hairloss on legs or feet and leg sores that never heal.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored. Treatments for atherosclerosis may include lifestyle changes (exercise, eating fruits and vegetables), medicines (statins), and medical procedures or surgery (angioplasty).
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB00925
PubChem Compound ID1145
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID1113
KEGG IDC01104
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID15724
BioCyc IDTRIMENTHLAMINE-N-O
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDTMO
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTrimethylamine oxide
References
Synthesis ReferenceHazard, Rene; Cheymol, Jean; Chabrier, Pierre. Trimethylamine oxide. (1962), 1 p.
MSDST3D4164.pdf
General References
  1. Tang WH, Wang Z, Levison BS, Koeth RA, Britt EB, Fu X, Wu Y, Hazen SL: Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 25;368(17):1575-84. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1109400. [23614584 ]
  2. Wang Z, Klipfell E, Bennett BJ, Koeth R, Levison BS, Dugar B, Feldstein AE, Britt EB, Fu X, Chung YM, Wu Y, Schauer P, Smith JD, Allayee H, Tang WH, DiDonato JA, Lusis AJ, Hazen SL: Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease. Nature. 2011 Apr 7;472(7341):57-63. doi: 10.1038/nature09922. [21475195 ]
  3. Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, Buffa JA, Org E, Sheehy BT, Britt EB, Fu X, Wu Y, Li L, Smith JD, DiDonato JA, Chen J, Li H, Wu GD, Lewis JD, Warrier M, Brown JM, Krauss RM, Tang WH, Bushman FD, Lusis AJ, Hazen SL: Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2013 May;19(5):576-85. doi: 10.1038/nm.3145. Epub 2013 Apr 7. [23563705 ]
  4. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  5. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  6. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  7. Maschke S, Wahl A, Azaroual N, Boulet O, Crunelle V, Imbenotte M, Foulard M, Vermeersch G, Lhermitte M: 1H-NMR analysis of trimethylamine in urine for the diagnosis of fish-odour syndrome. Clin Chim Acta. 1997 Jul 25;263(2):139-46. [9246418 ]
  8. On SL, Holmes B: Effect of inoculum size on the phenotypic characterization of Campylobacter species. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 May;29(5):923-6. [2056060 ]
  9. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  10. Shepshelovich J, Goldstein-Magal L, Globerson A, Yen PM, Rotman-Pikielny P, Hirschberg K: Protein synthesis inhibitors and the chemical chaperone TMAO reverse endoplasmic reticulum perturbation induced by overexpression of the iodide transporter pendrin. J Cell Sci. 2005 Apr 15;118(Pt 8):1577-86. Epub 2005 Mar 22. [15784681 ]
  11. Podadera P, Sipahi AM, Areas JA, Lanfer-Marquez UM: Diagnosis of suspected trimethylaminuria by NMR spectroscopy. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Jan;351(1-2):149-54. [15563884 ]
  12. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [8257730 ]
  13. Messana I, Forni F, Ferrari F, Rossi C, Giardina B, Zuppi C: Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiles of urine in type II diabetic patients. Clin Chem. 1998 Jul;44(7):1529-34. [9665433 ]
  14. Kenyon S, Carmichael PL, Khalaque S, Panchal S, Waring R, Harris R, Smith RL, Mitchell SC: The passage of trimethylamine across rat and human skin. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 Oct;42(10):1619-28. [15304308 ]
  15. Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. [7762816 ]
  16. Wolrath H, Stahlbom B, Hallen A, Forsum U: Trimethylamine and trimethylamine oxide levels in normal women and women with bacterial vaginosis reflect a local metabolism in vaginal secretion as compared to urine. APMIS. 2005 Jul-Aug;113(7-8):513-6. [16086821 ]
  17. Thithapandha A: A pharmacogenetic study of trimethylaminuria in Orientals. Pharmacogenetics. 1997 Dec;7(6):497-501. [9429235 ]
  18. Watt K, Jess TJ, Kelly SM, Price NC, McEwan IJ: Induced alpha-helix structure in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor transactivation domain modulates protein-protein interactions. Biochemistry. 2005 Jan 18;44(2):734-43. [15641800 ]
  19. Chung YL, Rider LG, Bell JD, Summers RM, Zemel LS, Rennebohm RM, Passo MH, Hicks J, Miller FW, Scott DL: Muscle metabolites, detected in urine by proton spectroscopy, correlate with disease damage in juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Aug 15;53(4):565-70. [16082628 ]
  20. Bennett BJ, de Aguiar Vallim TQ, Wang Z, Shih DM, Meng Y, Gregory J, Allayee H, Lee R, Graham M, Crooke R, Edwards PA, Hazen SL, Lusis AJ: Trimethylamine-N-oxide, a metabolite associated with atherosclerosis, exhibits complex genetic and dietary regulation. Cell Metab. 2013 Jan 8;17(1):49-60. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.12.011. [23312283 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]