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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:50:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:41 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4177
Identification
Common NamePentosidine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPentosidine is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Pentosidine is a carbohydrate-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that is considerably elevated in uremic patients. Derived from ribose, a pentose, pentosidine forms fluorescent cross-links between the arginine and lysine residues in collagen. It is formed in a reaction of the amino acids with the Maillard reaction products of ribose. Although it is present only in trace concentrations among tissue proteins, it is useful for assessing cumulative damage to proteins-advanced glycation endproductsThis compound per se has no biological activities but is highly correlated to the levels of precursors of carbonyl compounds, and for this reason is considered a reliable surrogate marker for AGEs. The modification of proteins in uremia is not limited to AGEs, since advanced lipoxidation end products are also demonstrable in plasma proteins in uremia. The accumulation of these compounds does not seem to be dependent only on the decline of renal function. Carbonyl precursors of AGEs and advanced lipoxidation end products are markedly elevated in uremic patients. Preliminary cross-sectional studies in haemodialysis patients seem to indicate that the AGEs and carbonyl stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of alterations in left ventricular geometry and function in these patients. The plasma pentosidine level in diabetic nephropathy was found to be determined by factors such as renal function control of glucose and the patient's age; of these, renal function was the most critical factor. The pathological role of AGEs in diabetic nephropathy, is in the expanded mesangial area of diffuse diabetic glomerulosclerosis, with nodular lesions, characteristic of diabetic nephropathy. These suggests a potential link of AGEs accumulation, which may be determined by renal function, control of glucose and age, to renal tissue damage in diabetic nephropathy. The rate of accumulation of glycoxidation products is accelerated in diabetes and age-adjusted concentrations of two advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in tissue proteins, N(6)-carboxymethyllysine and pentosidine, correlate with the severity of complication in diabetic patients. (1, 2, 3).
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(2S)-2-amino-6-(2-{[(4S)-4-amino-4-carboxybutyl]amino}-4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-4-yl)hexanoic acid
6-(2-{[(4S)-4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl]amino}-4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-4-yl)-L-norleucine
Chemical FormulaC17H26N6O4
Average Molecular Mass378.426 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass378.202 g/mol
CAS Registry Number124505-87-9
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-6-(2-{[(4S)-4-amino-4-carboxybutyl]amino}-4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-4-yl)hexanoic acid
Traditional Namepentosidine
SMILES[H][C@](N)(CCCCN1C=CC=C2NC(=NCCC[C@]([H])(N)C(O)=O)N=C12)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C17H26N6O4/c18-11(15(24)25)5-1-2-9-23-10-4-7-13-14(23)22-17(21-13)20-8-3-6-12(19)16(26)27/h4,7,10-12H,1-3,5-6,8-9,18-19H2,(H,20,21)(H,24,25)(H,26,27)/t11-,12-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=AYEKKSTZQYEZPU-RYUDHWBXSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Imidazopyridine
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Heterocyclic fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Pyridine
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.17 g/LALOGPS
logP-3.7ALOGPS
logP-3.9ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.51ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area169.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity99.61 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability40.55 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-007o-4094000000-b245a56b4c9094108ea22017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-4211910000-59669c61174e8270f6612017-10-06View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-001i-0029000000-854262062e9598613fa02016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00li-1197000000-4461d8ac18aadaf3b3db2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00lr-2690000000-9ecd9c1086a3f55eb39e2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0149000000-2a909c3ad75709cde23e2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01pk-0293000000-eeb163c55cfb060f0c612016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-1950000000-5d9db7e4abc522668b222016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-244f448f9ba9d32e5b4a2021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-02l3-0029000000-3c1b78586f20cb5fe12e2021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0zmi-1290000000-148af4f7447ffdcbee662021-09-23View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-3b946fd4b0a28aeb29712021-09-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-0019000000-5f1b8e5ff797463a68202021-09-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ukc-4961000000-2b993718b8caf22c04fa2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)Not Available2021-09-24View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as pentosidine are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (5). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (6).
MetabolismUremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB03933
PubChem Compound ID119593
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID106787
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID59951
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPentosidine
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4177.pdf
General References
  1. Zoccali C, Mallamaci F, Tripepi G: AGEs and carbonyl stress: potential pathogenetic factors of long-term uraemic complications. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15 Suppl 2:7-11. [11051031 ]
  2. Sugiyama S, Miyata T, Horie K, Iida Y, Tsuyuki M, Tanaka H, Maeda K: Advanced glycation end-products in diabetic nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;11 Suppl 5:91-4. [9044316 ]
  3. Wells-Knecht KJ, Brinkmann E, Wells-Knecht MC, Litchfield JE, Ahmed MU, Reddy S, Zyzak DV, Thorpe SR, Baynes JW: New biomarkers of Maillard reaction damage to proteins. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;11 Suppl 5:41-7. [9044306 ]
  4. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  5. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  6. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  7. Bar KJ, Franke S, Wenda B, Muller S, Kientsch-Engel R, Stein G, Sauer H: Pentosidine and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Neurobiol Aging. 2003 Mar-Apr;24(2):333-8. [12498967 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]