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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:12:53 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:14 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4278
Common NameDeoxyadenosine triphosphate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDeoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate used in cells for DNA synthesis. A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule type that contains a nucleoside with three phosphates bound to it. dATP contains the sugar deoxyribose, a precursor to DNA synthesis whereby the two existing phosphate groups are cleaved with the remaining deoxyadenosine monophosphate being incorporated into DNA during replication. When present in sufficiently high levels, dATP can act as an immunotoxin and a metabotoxin. An immunotoxin disrupts, limits the function, or destroys immune cells. A metabotoxin is an endogenous metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of deoxyadenosine triphosphate are associated with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, an inborn error of metabolism. ADA deficiency damages the immune system and causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID lack virtually all immune protection from bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are prone to repeated and persistent infections that can be very serious or life-threatening. These infections are often caused by "opportunistic" organisms that ordinarily do not cause illness in people with a normal immune system. The main symptoms of ADA deficiency are pneumonia, chronic diarrhea, and widespread skin rashes. The mechanism by which dATP functions as an immunotoxin is as follows: a buildup of dATP in cells inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and prevents DNA synthesis, so cells are unable to divide. Since developing T cells and B cells are some of the most mitotically active cells, they are unable to divide and propagate to respond to immune challenges.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
2'-Deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate
2'-Deoxyadenosine triphosphate
Deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate
Deoxyadenosine triphosphic acid
Chemical FormulaC10H16N5O12P3
Average Molecular Mass491.182 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass491.001 g/mol
CAS Registry Number1927-31-7
IUPAC Name({[({[(2R,3S,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3-hydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)phosphonic acid
Traditional NamedATP
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C10H16N5O12P3/c11-9-8-10(13-3-12-9)15(4-14-8)7-1-5(16)6(25-7)2-24-29(20,21)27-30(22,23)26-28(17,18)19/h3-7,16H,1-2H2,(H,20,21)(H,22,23)(H2,11,12,13)(H2,17,18,19)/t5-,6+,7+/m0/s1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. These are purine nucleotides with triphosphate group linked to the ribose moiety lacking a hydroxyl group at position 2.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine deoxyribonucleotides
Direct ParentPurine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates
Alternative Parents
  • Purine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Pyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Erythrocyte
  • Lymphocyte
  • T-Lymphocyte
Purine MetabolismSMP00050 map00230
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility3.83 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.9ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.03ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area258.9 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity94.3 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002e-9843300000-a8d959008963a6e8a26cJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-007p-9218120000-4918f13056a529d12752JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000f-0800900000-fa3d4e7a131ac1b4c8e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-1900000000-91f17c669f5b4e231613JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-2900000000-66cc97431dd4c6ef5edbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0911200000-81436267b4eed8c39c3fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-dad0a3294356131635d0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-1900000000-a1b841f4410b13c0280fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0220900000-5fd893f07f0f264099fdJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-003r-5950100000-3901292643e421d47188JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-c3a099b6927fdfbe3098JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismMetabolism of organophosphates occurs principally by oxidation, by hydrolysis via esterases and by reaction with glutathione. Demethylation and glucuronidation may also occur. Oxidation of organophosphorus pesticides may result in moderately toxic products. In general, phosphorothioates are not directly toxic but require oxidative metabolism to the proximal toxin. The glutathione transferase reactions produce products that are, in most cases, of low toxicity. Paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of organophosphate exposure.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronically high levels of deoxyadenosine triphosphate are associated with Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency.
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03222
PubChem Compound ID15993
ChemSpider ID15194
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16284
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDeoxyadenosine triphosphate
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Nespoli L, Porta F, Locatelli F, Aversa F, Carotti A, Lanfranchi A, Gibardi A, Marchesi ME, Abate L, Martelli MF, et al.: Successful lectin-separated bone marrow transplantation in adenosine deaminase deficiency-related severe immunodeficiency. Haematologica. 1990 Nov-Dec;75(6):546-50. [2098297 ]
  2. Hoffbrand AV, Ganeshaguru K, Hooton JW, Tattersall MH: Effect of iron deficiency and desferrioxamine on DNA synthesis in human cells. Br J Haematol. 1976 Aug;33(4):517-26. [1009024 ]
  3. Waddell D, Ullman B: Characterization of a cultured human T-cell line with genetically altered ribonucleotide reductase activity. Model for immunodeficiency. J Biol Chem. 1983 Apr 10;258(7):4226-31. [6339493 ]
  4. Bory C, Boulieu R, Souillet G, Chantin C, Guibaud P, Hershfield MS: Effect of polyethylene glycol-modified adenosine deaminase (PEG-ADA) therapy in two ADA-deficient children: measurement of erythrocyte deoxyadenosine triphosphate as a useful tool. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;309A:173-6. [1789201 ]
  5. Dang-Vu AP, Olsen EA, Vollmer RT, Greenberg ML, Hershfield MS: Treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma with 2'-deoxycoformycin (pentostatin). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988 Oct;19(4):692-8. [3263401 ]
  6. Donofrio J, Coleman MS, Hutton JJ, Daoud A, Lampkin B, Dyminski J: Overproduction of adenine deoxynucleosides and deoxynucletides in adenosine deaminase deficiency with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. J Clin Invest. 1978 Oct;62(4):884-7. [308954 ]
  7. Cowan MJ, Shannon KM, Wara DW, Ammann AJ: Rejection of bone marrow transplant and resistance of alloantigen reactive cells to in vivo deoxyadenosine in adenosine deaminase deficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1988 Nov;49(2):242-50. [2971490 ]
  8. Grever MR, Siaw MF, Jacob WF, Neidhart JA, Miser JS, Coleman MS, Hutton JJ, Balcerzak SP: The biochemical and clinical consequences of 2'-deoxycoformycin in refractory lymphoproliferative malignancy. Blood. 1981 Mar;57(3):406-17. [6970050 ]
  9. Simmonds HA, Fairbanks LD, Morris GS, Webster DR, Harley EH: Altered erythrocyte nucleotide patterns are characteristic of inherited disorders of purine or pyrimidine metabolism. Clin Chim Acta. 1988 Feb 15;171(2-3):197-210. [3370820 ]
  10. Hirschhorn R, Roegner V, Rubinstein A, Papageorgiou P: Plasma deoxyadenosine, adenosine, and erythrocyte deoxyATP are elevated at birth in an adenosine deaminase-deficient child. J Clin Invest. 1980 Mar;65(3):768-71. [6965496 ]
  11. Schmalstieg FC, Mills GC, Tsuda H, Goldman AS: Severe combined immunodeficiency in a child with a healthy adenosine deaminase deficient mother. Pediatr Res. 1983 Dec;17(12):935-40. [6606796 ]
  12. Simmonds HA, Webster DR, Perrett D, Reiter S, Levinsky RJ: Formation and degradation of deoxyadenosine nucleotides in inherited adenosine deaminase deficiency. Biosci Rep. 1982 May;2(5):303-14. [6980023 ]
  13. Simmonds HA, Sahota A, Potter CF, Perrett D, Hugh-Jones K, Watson JG: Purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency. Ciba Found Symp. 1978;(68):255-62. [387357 ]
  14. Hirschhorn R, Roegner-Maniscalco V, Kuritsky L, Rosen FS: Bone marrow transplantation only partially restores purine metabolites to normal in adenosine deaminase-deficient patients. J Clin Invest. 1981 Dec;68(6):1387-93. [7033281 ]
  15. Goday A, Simmonds HA, Webster DR, Levinsky RJ, Watson AR, Hoffbrand AV: Importance of platelet-free preparations for evaluating lymphocyte nucleotide levels in inherited or acquired immunodeficiency syndromes. Clin Sci (Lond). 1983 Dec;65(6):635-43. [6414755 ]
  16. Chen SH, Ochs HD, Scott CR, Giblett ER, Tingle AJ: Adenosine deaminase deficiency: disappearance of adenine deoxynucleotides from a patient's erythrocytes after successful marrow transplantation. J Clin Invest. 1978 Dec;62(6):1386-9. [372236 ]
  17. Gruber HE, Cohen AH, Firestein GS, Redelman D, Bluestein HG: Deoxy-ATP accumulation in adenosine deaminase-inhibited human B and T lymphocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1986;195 Pt A:503-7. [3487921 ]
  18. Bory C, Boulieu R, Souillet G, Chantin C, Rolland MO, Mathieu M, Hershfield M: Comparison of red cell transfusion and polyethylene glycol-modified adenosine deaminase therapy in an adenosine deaminase-deficient child: measurement of erythrocyte deoxyadenosine triphosphate as a useful tool. Pediatr Res. 1990 Aug;28(2):127-30. [2395602 ]
  19. Peters GJ, De Abreu RA, Oosterhof A, Veerkamp JH: Concentration of nucleotides and deoxynucleotides in peripheral and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated mammalian lymphocytes. Effects of adenosine and deoxyadenosine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983 Aug 23;759(1-2):7-15. [6603870 ]
  20. Morgan G, Levinsky RJ, Hugh-Jones K, Fairbanks LD, Morris GS, Simmonds HA: Heterogeneity of biochemical, clinical and immunological parameters in severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency. Clin Exp Immunol. 1987 Dec;70(3):491-9. [3436096 ]
  21. Zofall M, Bartholomew B: Two novel dATP analogs for DNA photoaffinity labeling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Nov 1;28(21):4382-90. [11058139 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Microtubule binding
Specific Function:
Repair polymerase that plays a key role in base-excision repair. Has 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity that removes the 5' sugar phosphate and also acts as a DNA polymerase that adds one nucleotide to the 3' end of the arising single-nucleotide gap. Conducts 'gap-filling' DNA synthesis in a stepwise distributive fashion rather than in a processive fashion as for other DNA polymerases.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
38177.34 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Purinergic nucleotide receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for ATP that acts as a ligand-gated ion channel.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
44288.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.18 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50118233
  1. Jarvis MF, Bianchi B, Uchic JT, Cartmell J, Lee CH, Williams M, Faltynek C: [3H]A-317491, a novel high-affinity non-nucleotide antagonist that specifically labels human P2X2/3 and P2X3 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jul;310(1):407-16. Epub 2004 Mar 15. [15024037 ]