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Record Information
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:16:11 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4778
Common NamePropylene glycol
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPropylene glycol (1,2-propanediol) is an organic compound (a diol alcohol), usually a tasteless, odorless, and colorless clear oily liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. It is manufactured by the hydration of propylene oxide. Propylene glycol is used as a solvent for intravenous, oral, and topical pharmaceutical preparations It is generally considered safe. However in large doses it can be toxic, especially if given over a short period of time. Intravenous lorazepam contains the largest amount of propylene glycol of commonly used drugs. In adults with normal liver and kidney function, the terminal half-life of propylene glycol ranges from 1.4 to 3.3 hours. Propylene glycol is metabolized by the liver to form lactate, acetate, and pyruvate. The nonmetabolized drug is excreted in the urine mainly as the glucuronide conjugate, approximately 12 to 45 percent is excreted unchanged in urine. Renal clearance decreases as the dose administered increases (390 ml/minute/173 m2 at a dose of 5 g/day but only 144 ml/minute/173 m2 at a dose of 21 g/day). These data suggest that renal clearance declines at higher propylene glycol doses because of saturation of proximal tubular secretion of the drug. As an acceptable level of propylene glycol has not been defined, the clinical implication of a propylene glycol level is unclear. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a maximum consumption of 25 mg/kg/day (1.8 g/day for a 75 kg male) of propylene glycol when used as a food additive, but this limit does not address its use as a drug solvent. No maximum dose is recommended in the literature for intravenous therapy with propylene glycol. Intoxication occurs at much higher doses than the WHO dose limit and is exclusive to pharmacologic exposure. Propylene glycol toxicity includes development of serum hyperosmolality, lactic acidosis, and kidney failure. It has been suggested that proximal tubular necrosis is the cause of acute kidney injury from propylene glycol. Along these lines, proximal tubular cell injury occurs in cultured human cells exposed to propylene glycol. Acute tubular necrosis was described with propylene glycol toxicity in a case of concomitant administration of intravenous lorazepam and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. Propylene glycol induced intoxication can also mimic sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Patients suspected of having sepsis with negative cultures should be evaluated for propylene glycol toxicity if they have been exposed to high dose lorazepam or other medications containing this solvent. (1)
Compound Type
  • Food Additive
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Solvent
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
1,2-Propylene glycol
a-Propylene glycol
Aliphatic alcohol
alpha-Propylene glycol
Chilisa FE
Dl-Propylene glycol
Ilexan P
Inhibited 1,2-propylene glycol
Isopropylene glycol
Methyl glycol
Methylethyl glycol
Methylethylene glycol
Monopropylene glycol
Propylene glycol usp
Sentry Propylene Glycol
Solar Winter Ban
Solargard P
Trimethyl glycol
Ucar 35
Chemical FormulaC3H8O2
Average Molecular Mass76.094 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass76.052 g/mol
CAS Registry Number57-55-6
IUPAC Namepropane-1,2-diol
Traditional Name1,2-propanediol
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C3H8O2/c1-3(5)2-4/h3-5H,2H2,1H3
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1,2-diols. These are polyols containing an alcohol group at two adjacent positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassAlcohols and polyols
Direct Parent1,2-diols
Alternative Parents
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Platelet
  • Skin
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060 map00620
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting Point-60°C
Boiling Point187.6°C
Solubility1E+006 mg/L (at 20°C)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility952 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity18.97 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.01 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014j-0900000000-d90655d5a614c4ddf9982014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014i-1900000000-ab4a1ff05d12757111702014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-a18bede40461dace657b2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-9000000000-6d2345a66e2cf8d2d3792017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014j-0900000000-d90655d5a614c4ddf9982017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1900000000-ab4a1ff05d12757111702017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-055g-9000000000-594a84f802409d0a82652016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0kp0-9520000000-ffe4848ba88742d1a4d62017-10-06View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a7i-9000000000-6c96c59f8ba2e0e5353e2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-005d-9000000000-ae07e4049d24341335ec2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00aj-9000000000-f455f8f0f79f9970711a2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-c5bf57086deb14e124952012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-6d2345a66e2cf8d2d3792012-08-31View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-0a1a58ae50ca7bfbc92f2016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-0c246d88e88be8375dd12016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-5e6c0456bbcc20afb6072016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-5bf5d9d3c7cf604af9a32016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-056r-9000000000-3499fb432cd1199266402016-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-36c6bc6082b188beb6652016-09-12View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0002-9000000000-cbc512db1a4c5510015e2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 90 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-20View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 15.09 MHz, CDCl3, experimental)Not Available2014-09-23View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)Not Available2016-10-22View Spectrum
1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, D2O, experimental)Not Available2016-10-22View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)Not Available2012-12-05View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesPropylene glycol is used as a solvent for intravenous, oral, and topical pharmaceutical preparations It is generally considered safe. Intravenous lorazepam contains the largest amount of propylene glycol of commonly used drugs. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a maximum consumption of 25 mg/kg/day (1.8 g/day for a 75 kg male) of propylene glycol when used as a food additive, but this limit does not address its use as a drug solvent.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01839
PubChem Compound ID1030
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID13835224
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16997
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia Link1,2-Propanediol
Synthesis Reference

Rudolf Huettinger, Ulrich Holtschmidt, “Polyoxyalkylene ethers of glycerin or 1,2-propanediol, esterified with fatty acid and/or isostearic acid, their synthesis and use as thickening or solubilizing agents.” U.S. Patent US4614622, issued June, 1968.

General References
  1. Zar T, Graeber C, Perazella MA: Recognition, treatment, and prevention of propylene glycol toxicity. Semin Dial. 2007 May-Jun;20(3):217-9. [17555487 ]
  2. Brucks R, Nanavaty M, Jung D, Siegel F: The effect of ultrasound on the in vitro penetration of ibuprofen through human epidermis. Pharm Res. 1989 Aug;6(8):697-701. [2813262 ]
  3. Claverie F, Giordano-Labadie F, Bazex J: [Contact eczema induced by propylene glycol. Concentration and vehicle adapted for for patch tests]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1997;124(4):315-7. [9739936 ]
  4. Li N, Liu Z, Jia X, Cui W, Wang W, Zhang X, Han C, Chen J, Wang M: [Study on the toxicological effect of chloropropanols on rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2003 Jul;32(4):349-52. [14535099 ]
  5. Maltaris T, Dimmler A, Muller A, Binder H, Hoffmann I, Kohl J, Siebzehnrubl E, Beckmann MW, Dittrich R: The use of an open-freezing system with self-seeding for cryopreservation of mouse ovarian tissue. Reprod Domest Anim. 2005 Jun;40(3):250-4. [15943700 ]
  6. Li GL, van der Geest R, Chanet L, van Zanten E, Danhof M, Bouwstra JA: In vitro iontophoresis of R-apomorphine across human stratum corneum. Structure-transport relationship of penetration enhancement. J Control Release. 2002 Nov 7;84(1-2):49-57. [12399167 ]
  7. Fare JC, Guesnon P, Helouis JJ, Normand S, Andre JL, Duvaldestin P: [Intramuscular premedication with diazepam in a fat emulsion]. Cah Anesthesiol. 1984 May-Jun;32(4):303-6. [6529665 ]
  8. Reichard GA Jr, Skutches CL, Hoeldtke RD, Owen OE: Acetone metabolism in humans during diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes. 1986 Jun;35(6):668-74. [3086164 ]
  9. Casazza JP, Frietas J, Stambuk D, Morgan MY, Veech RL: The measurement of 1,2-propanediol, D, L-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol in controls and alcoholic cirrhotics. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl. 1987;1:607-9. [3426740 ]
  10. Vaddi HK, Ho PC, Chan YW, Chan SY: Oxide terpenes as human skin penetration enhancers of haloperidol from ethanol and propylene glycol and their modes of action on stratum corneum. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Feb;26(2):220-8. [12576684 ]
  11. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  12. Fernandez C, Marti-Mestres G, Ramos J, Maillols H: LC analysis of benzophenone-3: II application to determination of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' skin penetration from solvents, coarse and submicron emulsions. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2000 Dec;24(1):155-65. [11108549 ]
  13. Vaddi HK, Ho PC, Chan SY: Terpenes in propylene glycol as skin-penetration enhancers: permeation and partition of haloperidol, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. J Pharm Sci. 2002 Jul;91(7):1639-51. [12115825 ]
  14. Gancevici GG: Role of complement inhibition in topical therapy of muco-cutaneous herpes simplex virus infections. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 1993 Oct-Dec;52(4):293-303. [7827366 ]
  15. Liu JH, Gao D, He LQ, Moey LK, Hua K, Liu ZB: The phase diagram for the ternary system propylene glycol-sodium chloride-water and their application to platelet cryopreservation. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2003 Feb;11(1):92-5. [12667299 ]
  16. Rajasenan RS, Riley RJ, Leeder JS: Expression and inducibility of antigens in severe combined immunodeficient mice recognized by human anti-P450 antibodies. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1995 Nov;135(1):89-99. [7482543 ]
  17. Decherchi P, Lammari-Barreault N, Cochard P, Carin M, Rega P, Pio J, Pellissier JF, Ladaique P, Novakovitch G, Gauthier P: CNS axonal regeneration with peripheral nerve grafts cryopreserved by vitrification: cytological and functional aspects. Cryobiology. 1997 May;34(3):214-39. [9160994 ]
  18. Trottet L, Owen H, Holme P, Heylings J, Collin IP, Breen AP, Siyad MN, Nandra RS, Davis AF: Are all aciclovir cream formulations bioequivalent? Int J Pharm. 2005 Nov 4;304(1-2):63-71. Epub 2005 Sep 1. [16139970 ]
  19. Miller DL, Wildnauer RH: Thermoanalytical probes for the analysis of physical properties of stratum corneum. J Invest Dermatol. 1977 Sep;69(3):287-9. [894064 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Also cross-link alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
83266.805 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) through the induction of NR0B2 or FGF19 expression, via two distinct mechanisms. Activates the intestinal bile acid-binding protein (IBABP). Activates the transcription of bile salt export pump ABCB11 by directly recruiting histone methyltransferase CARM1 to this locus.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
55913.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.0301 uMNVS_NR_hFXR_AntagonistNovascreen
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]