You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:17:23 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4805
Identification
Common NamePhenylacetaldehyde
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPhenylacetaldehyde is one important oxidation-related aldehyde. Exposure to styrene gives phenylacetaldehyde as a secondary metabolite. Styrene has been implicated as reproductive toxicant, neurotoxicant, or carcinogen in vivo or in vitro. Phenylacetaldehyde could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process together with C8 compounds is identified as a major aroma- active compound in cooked pine mushroom. Phenylacetaldehyde is readily oxidized to phenylacetic acid. Therefore will eventually be hydrolyzed and oxidized to yield phenylacetic acid that will be excreted primarily in the urine in conjugated form. (1, 2, 3). Phenylacetaldehyde is an aromatic compound found in buckwheat, chocolate and many other foods and flowers. It is also responsible for the antibiotic activity of maggot therapy and it is also a compound that is added to cigarettes to improve their aroma.
Compound Type
  • Cigarette Toxin
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
.alpha.-toluic aldehyde
1-Oxo-2-phenylethane
2-Phenylacetaldehyde
2-Phenylethanal
a-Phenylacetaldehyde
a-Tolualdehyde
a-Toluic aldehyde
alpha-Phenylacetaldehyde
alpha-Tolualdehyde
alpha-Toluic aldehyde
Benzenacetaldehyde
Benzeneacetaldehyde
Benzylcarboxaldehyde
FEMA No. 2974
Hyacinthin
Oxophenylethane
Phenacetaldehyde
Phenyl-Acetaldehyde
Phenylacetic aldehyde
Phenylethanal
Chemical FormulaC8H8O
Average Molecular Mass120.149 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass120.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number122-78-1
IUPAC Name2-phenylacetaldehyde
Traditional Namephenylacetaldehyde
SMILESO=CCC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C8H8O/c9-7-6-8-4-2-1-3-5-8/h1-5,7H,6H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=DTUQWGWMVIHBKE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylacetaldehydes. Phenylacetaldehydes are compounds containing a phenylacetaldehyde moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the second position by an acetalydehyde.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylacetaldehydes
Direct ParentPhenylacetaldehydes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylacetaldehyde
  • Alpha-hydrogen aldehyde
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aldehyde
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point33.5°C
Boiling Point195°C
SolubilityNot Available
LogP1.78
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.08 g/LALOGPS
logP1.75ALOGPS
logP1.45ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity36.44 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9400000000-bec6e42b47ad1306960fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-9700000000-152bdd5b77d6af9657ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-d37cbef4100302e951deJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9400000000-bec6e42b47ad1306960fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-9700000000-152bdd5b77d6af9657ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9400000000-e75d2f0bf82f16a80388JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9400000000-32573b7f6ab690a27e3eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-5900000000-21e85148d15d190553c4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-5900000000-4471e0916a32cf4df7acJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-5900000000-650012e69d0a89a2fd4aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-5900000000-c80b65e383f833509e0fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-b3923f5fae42c664ac4aJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-4900000000-5001b07cef2fed3caa2cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9100000000-048e2f1b42f7bd5104beJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0fb9-9000000000-fc1fbd4e7c49f44ba764JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80A) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-bc0fa2967da6872f3a47JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-8c96fee71b311d751181JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0fk9-2900000000-4b405668c302f69a4bc7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0ufr-9300000000-fe46a418a2f0124566c3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-4e064e0123dc18b6136aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-1900000000-02fff0bd874e6e8616bbJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004l-9200000000-340c7a60a7708fa801f1JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9100000000-e7ef9a5c5a6cc5674cd1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC.
Uses/SourcesThis is an endogenously produced metabolite found in the human body. It is used in metabolic reactions, catabolic reactions or waste generation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02178
HMDB IDHMDB06236
PubChem Compound ID998
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1233464
ChemSpider ID13876539
KEGG IDC00601
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16424
BioCyc IDHYDRPHENYLAC-CPD
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDHY1
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPAA
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Cho IH, Kim SY, Choi HK, Kim YS: Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Aug 23;54(17):6332-5. [16910727 ]
  2. Sumner SJ, Fennell TR: Review of the metabolic fate of styrene. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1994;24 Suppl:S11-33. [7818768 ]
  3. Watson WP, Munter T, Golding BT: A new role for glutathione: protection of vitamin B12 from depletion by xenobiotics. Chem Res Toxicol. 2004 Dec;17(12):1562-7. [15606130 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.25 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]