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Record Information
Creation Date2014-10-14 21:19:36 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:27:01 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4984
Common NameAniline
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAniline is an organic chemical compound, specifically a primary aromatic amine. It consists of a benzene ring attached to an amino group. Aniline is oily and, although colorless, it can be slowly oxidized and resinified in air to form impurities which can give it a red-brown tint. Its boiling point is 184 degree centigrade and its melting point is -6 degree centegrade. It is a liquid at room temperature. Like most volatile amines, it possesses a somewhat unpleasant odour of rotten fish, and also has a burning aromatic taste; it is a highly acrid poison. It ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame. Aniline reacts with strong acids to form salts containing the anilinium (or phenylammonium) ion (C6H5-NH3+), and reacts with acyl halides (such as acetyl chloride (ethanoyl chloride), CH3COCl) to form amides. The amides formed from aniline are sometimes called anilides, for example CH3-CO-NH-C6H5 is acetanilide, for which the modern name is N-phenyl ethanamide. Like phenols, aniline derivatives are highly reactive in electrophilic substitution reactions. For example, sulfonation of aniline produces sulfanilic acid, which can be converted to sulfanilamide. Sulfanilamide is one of the sulfa drugs which were widely used as antibacterial in the early 20th century. Aniline was first isolated from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by Otto Unverdorben. In 1834, Friedrich Runge isolated from coal tar a substance which produced a beautiful blue color on treatment with chloride of lime; this he named kyanol or cyanol. In 1841, C. J. Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit, dark-blue.
Compound Type
  • Carcinogen
  • Dye
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Aniline hydrobromide
Aniline oil
Aniline oil, phenylamine
Aniline reagent
Aniline, acs
Benzene, amino
Benzene,amino (aniline)
Blue oil
C.I. Oxidation base 1
CI Oxidation Base 1
Huile d'aniline
Chemical FormulaC6H7N
Average Molecular Mass93.127 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass93.058 g/mol
CAS Registry Number62-53-3
IUPAC Nameaniline
Traditional Nameaniline
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H7N/c7-6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5H,7H2
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aniline and substituted anilines. These are organic compounds containing an aminobenzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassAniline and substituted anilines
Direct ParentAniline and substituted anilines
Alternative Parents
  • Aniline or substituted anilines
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Bladder
  • Epidermis
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting Point-6 °C
Boiling Point245 C
Solubility36 mg/mL at 25 °C
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility18 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.64ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity30.76 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9000000000-9a543eee5081cc927e82JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-e04550d3cafee77e6192JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-b4213ef5f8ee4a3df612JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1900000000-b5d970641bbe63fdb366JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-9000000000-9a543eee5081cc927e82JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-e04550d3cafee77e6192JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-b4213ef5f8ee4a3df612JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0udi-1900000000-b5d970641bbe63fdb366JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-62eb000567821fbe8a22JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-ed34a4f0bafc3ce06174JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-a23bad3a5415210b8e58JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-129ed2147aba87164399JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-9000000000-9e60a29bae11a3beb396JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-00kf-9000000000-8e5e6fec72fd720bd3bbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6L) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-e04550d3cafee77e6192JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4a2ea8998eab06e3b7faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-002f-9000000000-041fc0d729e6308b36ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-c0f67277e0af76d5d6e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-9000000000-35b2093eb2c81ba07d17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-15d86b7cf94658003a7cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-fc34fd188d386065c4f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-fbed3991af3afeea3a79JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-0bea53746f5bc30ab770JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0007-9000000000-971619ea8bd73637ba14JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-2001822055db683e8999JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a5bc25b5010f2044b435JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-8ab282b725391b0d9923JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4a2ea8998eab06e3b7faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-002f-9000000000-041fc0d729e6308b36ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-c0f67277e0af76d5d6e1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0fb9-9000000000-35b2093eb2c81ba07d17JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-15d86b7cf94658003a7cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-fc34fd188d386065c4f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-03dl-9000000000-fbed3991af3afeea3a79JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00kf-9000000000-4ba5d22a406245826ca0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureToxic by ingestion and a skin and eye irritant.
Mechanism of ToxicityAniline induces lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in the spleen and that oxidative stress plays a role in the splenic toxicity of aniline. The hematopoietic system is the primary target of aniline insult in rats which is characterized by methemoglobinemia, hemolysis, and hemolytic anemia and by the development of splenic hyperplasia, siderosis, fibrosis, a variety of sarcomas, and, most commonly, fibrosarcomas on prolonged exposure. Many of the characteristics of splenotoxicity in rats, such as hyperplasia, hyperpigmentation, and/or formation of highly malignant tumors such as fibrosarcomas, are not restricted to aniline exposure, but also occur when animals are exposed to substituted anilines such as chloroaniline. Studies with aniline hydrochloride in rats indicate an association between erythrocyte damage and the severity of the splenotoxicity. Since one of the major functions of the spleen is to remove damaged erythrocytes, aniline-damaged erythrocytes would be expected to be scavenged by the spleen, especially by phagocytes. The deposition and subsequent breakdown of damaged erythrocytes will not only release aniline and/or its metabolites, but, most importantly, will also result in accumulation of iron in the spleen which may catalyze the generation of tissue-damaging oxygen radicals which can subsequently cause oxidation of biomolecules and result in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. It is also possible that during the scavenging of damaged erythrocytes, the splenic phagocytes, especially macrophages themselves, can become activated and release reactive oxygen species (ROS) which could further contribute to the oxidation of biomolecules leading to tissue injury. (14)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (15)
Uses/SourcesNot Available
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsAniline-induced splenic toxicity is characterized by hemorrhage, capsular hyperplasia, fibrosis, and a variety of sarcomas in rats.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB06728
PubChem Compound ID6115
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID5889
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17296
CTD IDC023650
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAniline
Synthesis Reference

Michel Dury, “Method for preparing 2-trifluoro-methoxy-aniline.” U.S. Patent US6121492, issued 0000.

General References
  1. Weiss T, Angerer J: Simultaneous determination of various aromatic amines and metabolites of aromatic nitro compounds in urine for low level exposure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Oct 5;778(1-2):179-92. [12376125 ]
  2. Hein DW, Doll MA, Xiao GH, Feng Y: Prostate expression of N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2) in rapid and slow acetylator congenic Syrian hamster. Pharmacogenetics. 2003 Mar;13(3):159-67. [12618593 ]
  3. Kuo HM, Ho HJ, Chao PD, Chung JG: Quercetin glucuronides inhibited 2-aminofluorene acetylation in human acute myeloid HL-60 leukemia cells. Phytomedicine. 2002 Oct;9(7):625-31. [12487326 ]
  4. Faraglia B, Chen SY, Gammon MD, Zhang Y, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Ahsan H, Garbowski GC, Hibshoosh H, Lin D, Kadlubar FF, Santella RM: Evaluation of 4-aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human breast cancer: the influence of tobacco smoke. Carcinogenesis. 2003 Apr;24(4):719-25. [12727801 ]
  5. Peluso M, Airoldi L, Magagnotti C, Fiorini L, Munnia A, Hautefeuille A, Malaveille C, Vineis P: White blood cell DNA adducts and fruit and vegetable consumption in bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Feb;21(2):183-7. [10657956 ]
  6. el-Bayoumy K, Donahue JM, Hecht SS, Hoffmann D: Identification and quantitative determination of aniline and toluidines in human urine. Cancer Res. 1986 Dec;46(12 Pt 1):6064-7. [3779628 ]
  7. Mathews JM, De Costa KS: Absorption, metabolism, and disposition of 1,3-diphenyl-1-triazene in rats and mice after oral, i.v., and dermal administration. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Dec;27(12):1499-504. [10570033 ]
  8. Bomhard EM, Herbold BA: Genotoxic activities of aniline and its metabolites and their relationship to the carcinogenicity of aniline in the spleen of rats. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2005 Dec;35(10):783-835. [16468500 ]
  9. Iwersen-Bergmann S, Schmoldt A: Acute intoxication with aniline: detection of acetaminophen as aniline metabolite. Int J Legal Med. 2000;113(3):171-4. [10876991 ]
  10. Gan J, Skipper PL, Gago-Dominguez M, Arakawa K, Ross RK, Yu MC, Tannenbaum SR: Alkylaniline-hemoglobin adducts and risk of non-smoking-related bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Oct 6;96(19):1425-31. [15467031 ]
  11. Nohynek GJ, Duche D, Garrigues A, Meunier PA, Toutain H, Leclaire J: Under the skin: Biotransformation of para-aminophenol and para-phenylenediamine in reconstructed human epidermis and human hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett. 2005 Sep 15;158(3):196-212. [15890478 ]
  12. Stanley LA, Coroneos E, Cuff R, Hickman D, Ward A, Sim E: Immunochemical detection of arylamine N-acetyltransferase in normal and neoplastic bladder. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996 Sep;44(9):1059-67. [8773572 ]
  13. Vaziri SA, Hughes NC, Sampson H, Darlington G, Jewett MA, Grant DM: Variation in enzymes of arylamine procarcinogen biotransformation among bladder cancer patients and control subjects. Pharmacogenetics. 2001 Feb;11(1):7-20. [11207033 ]
  14. Khan MF, Boor PJ, Gu Y, Alcock NW, Ansari GA: Oxidative stress in the splenotoxicity of aniline. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1997 Jan;35(1):22-30. [9024670 ]
  15. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Keratin-binding protein required for epithelial cell polarization. Involved in apical junction complex (AJC) assembly via its interaction with PARD3. Required for ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
125445.19 Da
  1. Thier R, Lewalter J, Selinski S, Bolt HM: Biological monitoring in workers in a nitrobenzene reduction plant: haemoglobin versus serum albumin adducts. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001 Sep;74(7):483-8. [11697451 ]
General Function:
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Glandular kallikreins cleave Met-Lys and Arg-Ser bonds in kininogen to release Lys-bradykinin.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
28889.425 Da
  1. Sousa MO, Miranda TL, Costa EB, Bittar ER, Santoro MM, Figueiredo AF: Linear competitive inhibition of human tissue kallikrein by 4-aminobenzamidine and benzamidine and linear mixed inhibition by 4-nitroaniline and aniline. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001 Jan;34(1):35-44. [11151026 ]