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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-03 22:19:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:37 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2500
Identification
Common Namealpha-Latrotoxin
ClassProtein
DescriptionLatrotoxins are the main active components of the venom of spiders of the genus Latrodectus (widow spiders). They are neurotoxins and are responsible for the symptoms of latrodectism. The best-studied latrotoxin is alpha-latrotoxin, which acts presynaptically to release neurotransmitters from sensory and motor neurons, as well as on endocrine cells. (2)
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Protein
  • Spider Toxin
Protein StructureT3d2500
Synonyms
Synonym
a-Latrotoxin
a-LTX
alpha-LTX
Chemical FormulaNot Available
Average Molecular Mass156855.500 g/mol
CAS Registry Number65988-34-3
SequenceNot Available
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceClear solution.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility>10 mg/mL
LogPNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInjection (sting/bite) (4)
Mechanism of Toxicityalpha-Latrotoxin acts presynaptically to release neurotransmitters from sensory and motor neurons, as well as on endocrine cells. alpha-Latrotoxin tetramers can form ion-permeable pores in the membrane of target cells, causing influx of calcium ions and thus leading to massive release of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and GABA. alpha-Latrotoxin insertion requires the receptors neurexin, latrophilin, and protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma. alpha-Latrotoxin interactions with latrophilin is also believed to have other signalling-related actions. (2)
MetabolismFree toxin may be removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system (primarily the liver and kidneys) or it may be degraded through cellular internalization via the lysosomes. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of digestive enzymes, including several proteases.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 0.90 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (1)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesLatrotoxins are the main active components of the venom of spiders of the genus Latrodectus (widow spiders). (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health Effectsalpha-Latrotoxin causes a condition called latrodectism, which results from the venom acting at nerve endings to prevent relaxation of muscles, causing tetany (constant, strong, painful muscle contractions). Although severe symptoms such as shock and coma are known to have happened, death due to latrodectism is rare. (3)
SymptomsSymptoms of latrodectism include pain in muscle groups local to the bite, muscle cramping, headache, dizziness, tremors, salivation, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting, anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, lacrimation, joint pain, tachycardia or bradycardia, restlessness, hypertension, and tachypnea. (3)
TreatmentTreatments for latrodectism usually involve symptomatic therapy with pain medication, muscle relaxants, and antivenom. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound IDNot Available
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDP23631
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAlpha-latrotoxin
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSNot Available
General References
  1. Bettini S (ed) (1978). Athropod Venoms Vol IIL of Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Berlin: Springer.
  2. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
  3. Wikipedia. Latrodectism. Last Updated 12 May 2009. [Link]
  4. Wikipedia. Spider toxin. Last Updated 9 January 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Latrotoxin receptor activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent receptor of high affinity for alpha-latrotoxin, an excitatory neurotoxin present in black widow spider venom which triggers massive exocytosis from neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Receptor for TENM2 that mediates heterophilic synaptic cell-cell contact and postsynaptic specialization. Receptor propably implicated in the regulation of exocytosis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADGRL1
Uniprot ID:
O94910
Molecular Weight:
162715.375 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Latrotoxin receptor activity
Specific Function:
Calcium-independent receptor of low affinity for alpha-latrotoxin, an excitatory neurotoxin present in black widow spider venom which triggers massive exocytosis from neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Receptor propably implicated in the regulation of exocytosis.
Gene Name:
ADGRL2
Uniprot ID:
O95490
Molecular Weight:
163347.39 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
G-protein coupled receptor activity
Specific Function:
Plays a role in cell-cell adhesion and neuron guidance via its interactions with FLRT2 and FLRT3 that are expressed at the surface of adjacent cells (PubMed:26235030). Plays a role in the development of glutamatergic synapses in the cortex. Important in determining the connectivity rates between the principal neurons in the cortex.
Gene Name:
ADGRL3
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAR2
Molecular Weight:
161810.84 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
Cell surface protein involved in cell-cell-interactions, exocytosis of secretory granules and regulation of signal transmission. Function is isoform-specific. Alpha-type isoforms have a long N-terminus with six laminin G-like domains and play an important role in synaptic signal transmission. Alpha-type isoforms play a role in the regulation of calcium channel activity and Ca(2+)-triggered neurotransmitter release at synapses and at neuromuscular junctions. They play an important role in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis of secretory granules in pituitary gland. They may effect their functions at synapses and in endocrine cells via their interactions with proteins from the exocytotic machinery. Likewise, alpha-type isoforms play a role in regulating the activity of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, a subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels. Both alpha-type and beta-type isoforms may play a role in the formation or maintenance of synaptic junctions via their calcium-dependent interactions (via the extracellular domains) with neuroligin family members, CBLN1 or CBLN2. In vitro, triggers the de novo formation of presynaptic structures. May be involved in specification of excitatory synapses. Alpha-type isoforms were first identified as receptors for alpha-latrotoxin from spider venom (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NRXN1
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULB1
Molecular Weight:
161881.53 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Neuronal cell surface protein that may be involved in cell recognition and cell adhesion by forming intracellular junctions through binding to neuroligins. May play a role in formation or maintenance of synaptic junctions. May mediate intracellular signaling. May play a role in angiogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NRXN1
Uniprot ID:
P58400
Molecular Weight:
46860.215 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Neuronal cell surface protein that may be involved in cell recognition and cell adhesion. May mediate intracellular signaling.
Gene Name:
NRXN2
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2S2
Molecular Weight:
184980.145 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Neuronal cell surface protein that may be involved in cell recognition and cell adhesion.
Gene Name:
NRXN2
Uniprot ID:
P58401
Molecular Weight:
70926.325 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
Neuronal cell surface protein that may be involved in cell recognition and cell adhesion. May mediate intracellular signaling.
Gene Name:
NRXN3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y4C0
Molecular Weight:
180597.62 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Neuronal cell surface protein that may be involved in cell recognition and cell adhesion. May play a role in angiogenesis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NRXN3
Uniprot ID:
Q9HDB5
Molecular Weight:
69304.31 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Interacts with LAR-interacting protein LIP.1.
Gene Name:
PTPRS
Uniprot ID:
Q13332
Molecular Weight:
217039.825 Da
References
  1. Wikipedia. alpha-latrotoxin. Last Updated 14 May 2009. [Link]