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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:18 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:50 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2715
Identification
Common NameCitalopram
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCitalopram hydrobromide belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Citalopram and its N-demethylated metabolites exist as a racemic mixture but its effects are largely due to the S-enantiomer, S-citalopram and S-demthylcitalopram. Despite distinct structural differences between compounds in this class, SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be required before a clinical effect is seen. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of neuronal serotonin reuptake. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute use, SSRIs block serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The overall clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Citalopram is approved for treatment of depression. Unlabeled indications include mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, smoking cessation, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy. Citalopram has the fewest drug-drug interactions of the SSRIs.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Antidepressant
  • Antidepressant, Second-Generation
  • Antidepressive Agent
  • Antidepressive Agent, Second-Generation
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Nitrile
  • Organic Compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitor
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Akarin
Bonitrile
Celapram
Celexa
Ciazil
Cilift
Cipram
Cipramil
Ciprapine
Citabax
Citadur
Citalec
Citalopram hydrobromide
Citol
Citopam
Citox
Citrol
Dalsan
Elopram
Humorup
Nitalapram
Oropram
Pramcit
Recital
Seropram
Talam
Talohexal
Temperax
Vodelax
Zentius
Zetalo
Chemical FormulaC20H21FN2O
Average Molecular Mass324.392 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass324.164 g/mol
CAS Registry Number59729-33-8
IUPAC Name1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-carbonitrile
Traditional Namerecital
SMILESCN(C)CCCC1(OCC2=C1C=CC(=C2)C#N)C1=CC=C(F)C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C20H21FN2O/c1-23(2)11-3-10-20(17-5-7-18(21)8-6-17)19-9-4-15(13-22)12-16(19)14-24-20/h4-9,12H,3,10-11,14H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=WSEQXVZVJXJVFP-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylbutylamines. Phenylbutylamines are compounds containing a phenylbutylamine moiety, which consists of a phenyl group substituted at the fourth carbon by an butan-1-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenylbutylamines
Direct ParentPhenylbutylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylbutylamine
  • Isocoumaran
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Halobenzene
  • Aralkylamine
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Ether
  • Carbonitrile
  • Nitrile
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Liver
  • Platelet
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point182-183°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilitySparingly soluble
LogP3.5
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0059 g/LALOGPS
logP3.58ALOGPS
logP3.76ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area36.26 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity94.02 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability35.3 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-6190000000-9c092c583199a2a486efJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-589e7ae88aee7da0e0bdJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-004i-0029000000-8fd40dc922da5ab2c8b0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0291000000-c60cbea4e4e6acbb4599JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00l2-0290000000-f2131534473e56b3c8a7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00mk-0390000000-e6cd61150feeca1d2867JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0291000000-ff658bd6b54adccbaf03JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-67fa40aabd862948aaf3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0129000000-60abdaff2f5d8f72e271JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0bt9-0981000000-1eba423765a46f1dd6b9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0980000000-514f2e0bb73903b25b90JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0970000000-f27f46e3a573498d9f9bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0980000000-5ba355c707bc5008c067JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-a115136f2084cc2a6a47JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0129000000-474ae50db9e74e5a31beJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0bt9-0981000000-011dbb85d8e791486397JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0970000000-99aedc452f996b9c9113JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0980000000-c8734dde2a469350af7cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-0970000000-cff11d70160f94e8fc2eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0391000000-e7862ea10a18e5771adcJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-1029000000-b0f10b0f7897ca083ed5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-003r-2294000000-5935fccdd160458bb836JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9740000000-7a3a98de78c385feae56JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0019000000-84c6ddc8fad411d8541fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-1029000000-d4716f92fec4a098ef2cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0005-5290000000-45334fd57d41c1fadf1aJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9110000000-5b1fde1b7a58929c7f2dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureRapidly and well absorbed from the GI tract. Peak plasma concentrations occur within 4 hours of a single orally administered dose. Bioavailability is 80% following oral administration. Food does not affect absorption.
Mechanism of ToxicityThe antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of citalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. Citalopram blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT1A autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine receptors than tricyclic antidepressant drugs.
MetabolismCitalopram is metabolized mainly in the liver via N-demethylation to its principle metabolite, demethylcitalopram. Other metabolites include didemethylcitalopram, citalopram N-oxide, and a deaminated propionic acid derivative. However, the predominant entity in plasma is unchanged citalopram. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 2C19 isozymes appear to be principally involved in producing demethylcitalopram. Demethylcitalopram appears to be further N-demethylated by CYP2D6 to didemethylcitalopram. Citalopram metabolites possess little pharmacologic activity in comparison to their parent compound and do not likely contribute to the clinical effect of the drug. Route of Elimination: 12-23% of an oral dose of citalopram is recovered unchanged in the urine, while 10% of the dose is recovered in the feces. Half Life: 35 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of depression. Unlabeled indications include: treatment of mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, smoking cessation, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsSymptoms most often accompanying citalopram overdose, alone or in combination with other drugs and/or alcohol, included dizziness, sweating, nausea, vomiting, tremor, somnolence, and sinus tachycardia. In more rare cases, observed symptoms included amnesia, confusion, coma, convulsions, hyperventilation, cyanosis, rhabdomyolysis, and ECG changes (including QTc prolongation, nodal rhythm, ventricular arrhythmia, and very rare cases of torsade de pointes). Acute renal failure has been very rarely reported accompanying overdose. Withdrawal symptoms include flu-like symptoms, insomnia, nausea, imbalance, sensory changes and hyperactivity.
TreatmentEstablish and maintain an airway to ensure adequate ventilation and oxygenation. Gastric evacuation by lavage and use of activated charcoal should be considered. Careful observation and cardiac and vital sign monitoring are recommended, along with general symptomatic and supportive care. Due to the large volume of distribution of citalopram, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. There are no specific antidotes for Celexa. (29)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00215
HMDB IDHMDB05038
PubChem Compound ID2771
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL549
ChemSpider ID2669
KEGG IDC07572
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID608516
ChEBI ID3723
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDCitalopram
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCitalopram
References
Synthesis Reference

Hans Petersen, “Method for the preparation of citalopram.” U.S. Patent US6229026, issued December, 1992.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Sindrup SH, Bjerre U, Dejgaard A, Brosen K, Aaes-Jorgensen T, Gram LF: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram relieves the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992 Nov;52(5):547-52. [1424428 ]
  2. Atmaca M, Kuloglu M, Tezcan E, Semercioz A: The efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a placebo-controlled study. Int J Impot Res. 2002 Dec;14(6):502-5. [12494286 ]
  3. Andersen G, Vestergaard K, Riis JO: Citalopram for post-stroke pathological crying. Lancet. 1993 Oct 2;342(8875):837-9. [8104273 ]
  4. Clayton A, Keller A, McGarvey EL: Burden of phase-specific sexual dysfunction with SSRIs. J Affect Disord. 2006 Mar;91(1):27-32. Epub 2006 Jan 20. [16430968 ]
  5. Baumann P: Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of citalopram and other SSRIs. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996 Mar;11 Suppl 1:5-11. [8732438 ]
  6. Hyttel J, Bogeso KP, Perregaard J, Sanchez C: The pharmacological effect of citalopram residues in the (S)-(+)-enantiomer. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1992;88(2):157-60. [1632943 ]
  7. Caccia S: Metabolism of the newer antidepressants. An overview of the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic implications. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Apr;34(4):281-302. [9571301 ]
  8. Gleason OC, Yates WR, Isbell MD, Philipsen MA: An open-label trial of citalopram for major depression in patients with hepatitis C. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Mar;63(3):194-8. [11926717 ]
  9. Blardi P, de Lalla A, Urso R, Auteri A, Dell'Erba A, Bossini L, Castrogiovanni P: Activity of citalopram on adenosine and serotonin circulating levels in depressed patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jun;25(3):262-6. [15876907 ]
  10. Bhagwagar Z, Hafizi S, Cowen PJ: Acute citalopram administration produces correlated increases in plasma and salivary cortisol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Aug;163(1):118-20. Epub 2002 Jun 27. [12185409 ]
  11. Nikisch G, Mathe AA, Czernik A, Eap CB, Jimenez-Vasquez P, Brawand-Amey M, Baumann P: Stereoselective metabolism of citalopram in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of depressive patients: relationship with 5-HIAA in CSF and clinical response. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004 Jun;24(3):283-90. [15118482 ]
  12. Anastos N, McIntyre IM, Lynch MJ, Drummer OH: Postmortem concentrations of citalopram. J Forensic Sci. 2002 Jul;47(4):882-4. [12137000 ]
  13. Horak EL, Jenkins AJ: Postmortem tissue distribution of olanzapine and citalopram in a drug intoxication. J Forensic Sci. 2005 May;50(3):679-81. [15932107 ]
  14. Lapatto-Reiniluoto O, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ: Effect of activated charcoal alone or given after gastric lavage in reducing the absorption of diazepam, ibuprofen and citalopram. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Aug;48(2):148-53. [10417490 ]
  15. Worm K, Dragsholt C, Simonsen KW, Kringsholm B: [Citalopram in forensic samples. Citalopram concentrations in samples from legal autopsies and from living persons in connection with traffic accidents or cases of violence in Denmark 1989-1996]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1999 Jul 26;161(30):4291-2. [10439690 ]
  16. Jensen PN, Olesen OV, Bertelsen A, Linnet K: Citalopram and desmethylcitalopram concentrations in breast milk and in serum of mother and infant. Ther Drug Monit. 1997 Apr;19(2):236-9. [9108657 ]
  17. Schmidt K, Olesen OV, Jensen PN: Citalopram and breast-feeding: serum concentration and side effects in the infant. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Jan 15;47(2):164-5. [10664835 ]
  18. Rochat B, Kosel M, Boss G, Testa B, Gillet M, Baumann P: Stereoselective biotransformation of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and its demethylated metabolites by monoamine oxidases in human liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Jul 1;56(1):15-23. [9698084 ]
  19. Kristoffersen L, Bugge A, Lundanes E, Slordal L: Simultaneous determination of citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine and their metabolites in plasma and whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999 Nov 12;734(2):229-46. [10595721 ]
  20. Nordeng H, Bergsholm YK, Bohler E, Spigset O: [The transfer of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to human milk]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Jan 20;121(2):199-203. [11475200 ]
  21. Plenge P, Mellerup ET: [3H]citalopram binding to brain and platelet membranes of human and rat. J Neurochem. 1991 Jan;56(1):248-52. [1824783 ]
  22. Nikisch G, Mathe AA, Czernik A, Thiele J, Bohner J, Eap CB, Agren H, Baumann P: Long-term citalopram administration reduces responsiveness of HPA axis in patients with major depression: relationship with S-citalopram concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and clinical response. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Oct;181(4):751-60. Epub 2005 Sep 29. [15988572 ]
  23. Spigset O, Hagg S, Stegmayr B, Dahlqvist R: Citalopram pharmacokinetics in patients with chronic renal failure and the effect of haemodialysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Dec;56(9-10):699-703. [11214779 ]
  24. Anderer P, Saletu B, Semlitsch HV, Pascual-Marqui RD: Perceptual and cognitive event-related potentials in neuropsychopharmacology: methodological aspects and clinical applications (pharmaco-ERP topography and tomography). Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2002;24 Suppl C:121-37. [12575494 ]
  25. Kosel M, Gnerre C, Voirol P, Amey M, Rochat B, Bouras C, Testa B, Baumann P: In vitro biotransformation of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram, its enantiomers and demethylated metabolites by monoamine oxidase in rat and human brain preparations. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(2):181-8. [11840311 ]
  26. Spigset O, Wilhelmsson C, Mjorndal T, Eriksson S: Low serum sodium concentrations during treatment with citalopram in elderly patients: relationship to serum citalopram levels and to platelet serotonin 5-HT2A receptor status. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000 Oct;20(5):582-4. [11001247 ]
  27. FDA label
  28. Drugs.com [Link]
  29. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0011 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.00113 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.00116 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.0015 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.0016 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.0025 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.00438 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.0089 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.016 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.019 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory0.0328 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
IC500.019 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Eriksson E, Engberg G, Bing O, Nissbrandt H: Effects of mCPP on the extracellular concentrations of serotonin and dopamine in rat brain. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999 Mar;20(3):287-96. [10063489 ]
  2. Maines LW, Keck BJ, Smith JE, Lakoski JM: Corticosterone regulation of serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor expression in the aging brain. Synapse. 1999 Apr;32(1):58-66. [10188639 ]
  3. Vicentic A, Battaglia G, Carroll FI, Kuhar MJ: Serotonin transporter production and degradation rates: studies with RTI-76. Brain Res. 1999 Sep 11;841(1-2):1-10. [10546982 ]
  4. Dugar A, Keck BJ, Maines LW, Miller S, Njai R, Lakoski JM: Compensatory responses in the aging hippocampal serotonergic system following neurodegenerative injury with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Synapse. 2001 Feb;39(2):109-21. [11180498 ]
  5. Dutta AK, Fei XS, Beardsley PM, Newman JL, Reith ME: Structure-activity relationship studies of 4-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-1-benzylpiperidine derivatives and their N-analogues: evaluation of O-and N-analogues and their binding to monoamine transporters. J Med Chem. 2001 Mar 15;44(6):937-48. [11300876 ]
  6. McNamara YM, Cloonan SM, Knox AJ, Keating JJ, Butler SG, Peters GH, Meegan MJ, Williams DC: Synthesis and serotonin transporter activity of 1,3-bis(aryl)-2-nitro-1-propenes as a new class of anticancer agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Feb 1;19(3):1328-48. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.11.054. Epub 2010 Dec 7. [21227702 ]
  7. Owens JM, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: [Second generation SSRIS: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine]. Encephale. 2002 Jul-Aug;28(4):350-5. [12232544 ]
  8. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
  9. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  10. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB: Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1305-22. [9400006 ]
  11. Plisson C, McConathy J, Martarello L, Malveaux EJ, Camp VM, Williams L, Votaw JR, Goodman MM: Synthesis, radiosynthesis, and biological evaluation of carbon-11 and iodine-123 labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-[4'-((Z)-2-haloethenyl)phenyl]tropanes: candidate radioligands for in vivo imaging of the serotonin transporter. J Med Chem. 2004 Feb 26;47(5):1122-35. [14971892 ]
  12. Ben-Daniel R, Deuther-Conrad W, Scheunemann M, Steinbach J, Brust P, Mishani E: Carbon-11 labeled indolylpropylamine analog as a new potential PET agent for imaging of the serotonin transporter. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Jun 15;16(12):6364-70. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.05.006. Epub 2008 May 7. [18487050 ]
  13. Funke U, Fischer S, Hiller A, Scheunemann M, Deuther-Conrad W, Brust P, Steinbach J: 3-(4-(6-Fluoroalkoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-yl)cyclohexyl)-1H-indole-5-car bonitriles for SERT imaging: chemical synthesis, evaluation in vitro and radiofluorination. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug 15;18(16):4727-30. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.06.077. Epub 2008 Jun 28. [18644726 ]
  14. Zhang P, Jorgensen TN, Loland CJ, Newman AH: A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jan 1;23(1):323-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.089. Epub 2012 Nov 1. [23168018 ]
  15. Henry LK, Field JR, Adkins EM, Parnas ML, Vaughan RA, Zou MF, Newman AH, Blakely RD: Tyr-95 and Ile-172 in transmembrane segments 1 and 3 of human serotonin transporters interact to establish high affinity recognition of antidepressants. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jan 27;281(4):2012-23. Epub 2005 Nov 3. [16272152 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory4.07 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory4.87 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory5.029 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory6.19 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory6.514 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory7.841 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory7.865 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory8.69 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory>1000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  2. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
  3. Owens JM, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: [Second generation SSRIS: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine]. Encephale. 2002 Jul-Aug;28(4):350-5. [12232544 ]
  4. Plisson C, McConathy J, Martarello L, Malveaux EJ, Camp VM, Williams L, Votaw JR, Goodman MM: Synthesis, radiosynthesis, and biological evaluation of carbon-11 and iodine-123 labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-[4'-((Z)-2-haloethenyl)phenyl]tropanes: candidate radioligands for in vivo imaging of the serotonin transporter. J Med Chem. 2004 Feb 26;47(5):1122-35. [14971892 ]
  5. Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB: Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Dec;283(3):1305-22. [9400006 ]
  6. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
  7. Zhang P, Jorgensen TN, Loland CJ, Newman AH: A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jan 1;23(1):323-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.089. Epub 2012 Nov 1. [23168018 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory16.54 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory>1000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Plisson C, McConathy J, Martarello L, Malveaux EJ, Camp VM, Williams L, Votaw JR, Goodman MM: Synthesis, radiosynthesis, and biological evaluation of carbon-11 and iodine-123 labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-[4'-((Z)-2-haloethenyl)phenyl]tropanes: candidate radioligands for in vivo imaging of the serotonin transporter. J Med Chem. 2004 Feb 26;47(5):1122-35. [14971892 ]
  2. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  3. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
  4. Owens JM, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: [Second generation SSRIS: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine]. Encephale. 2002 Jul-Aug;28(4):350-5. [12232544 ]
  5. Vaishnavi SN, Nemeroff CB, Plott SJ, Rao SG, Kranzler J, Owens MJ: Milnacipran: a comparative analysis of human monoamine uptake and transporter binding affinity. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):320-2. [14744476 ]
  6. Zhang P, Jorgensen TN, Loland CJ, Newman AH: A rhodamine-labeled citalopram analogue as a high-affinity fluorescent probe for the serotonin transporter. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jan 1;23(1):323-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.089. Epub 2012 Nov 1. [23168018 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Channel properties are modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates the rapidly activating component of the delayed rectifying potassium current in heart (IKr). Isoforms USO have no channel activity by themself, but modulates channel characteristics by forming heterotetramers with other isoforms which are retained intracellularly and undergo ubiquitin-dependent degradation.
Gene Name:
KCNH2
Uniprot ID:
Q12809
Molecular Weight:
126653.52 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC503.981 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
IC503.98107 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Keseru GM: Prediction of hERG potassium channel affinity by traditional and hologram qSAR methods. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003 Aug 18;13(16):2773-5. [12873512 ]
  2. Tobita M, Nishikawa T, Nagashima R: A discriminant model constructed by the support vector machine method for HERG potassium channel inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Jun 2;15(11):2886-90. [15911273 ]
  3. Jia L, Sun H: Support vector machines classification of hERG liabilities based on atom types. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Jun 1;16(11):6252-60. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.04.028. Epub 2008 Apr 16. [18448342 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.617 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
  2. Chanrion B, Mannoury la Cour C, Gavarini S, Seimandi M, Vincent L, Pujol JF, Bockaert J, Marin P, Millan MJ: Inverse agonist and neutral antagonist actions of antidepressants at recombinant and native 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors: differential modulation of cell surface expression and signal transduction. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;73(3):748-57. Epub 2007 Dec 14. [18083778 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.242 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
Inhibitory1.43 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [17916059 ]
  2. Owens JM, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB: [Second generation SSRIS: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine]. Encephale. 2002 Jul-Aug;28(4):350-5. [12232544 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Regulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, nociceptive processing, pain perception, mood and behavior. Besides, plays a role in vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries.
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular Weight:
43567.535 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Regulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity. May also play a role in regulating the release of other neurotransmitters. May play a role in vasoconstriction.
Gene Name:
HTR1D
Uniprot ID:
P28221
Molecular Weight:
41906.38 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [17916059 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Millan MJ, Gobert A, Lejeune F, Newman-Tancredi A, Rivet JM, Auclair A, Peglion JL: S33005, a novel ligand at both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters: I. Receptor binding, electrophysiological, and neurochemical profile in comparison with venlafaxine, reboxetine, citalopram, and clomipramine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Aug;298(2):565-80. [11454918 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Bareggi SR, Mundo E, Dell'Osso B, Altamura AC: The use of escitalopram beyond major depression: pharmacological aspects, efficacy and tolerability in anxiety disorders. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2007 Oct;3(5):741-53. [17916059 ]
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin-dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase.
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5018.8 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 25870
References
  1. Ahlin G, Karlsson J, Pedersen JM, Gustavsson L, Larsson R, Matsson P, Norinder U, Bergstrom CA, Artursson P: Structural requirements for drug inhibition of the liver specific human organic cation transport protein 1. J Med Chem. 2008 Oct 9;51(19):5932-42. doi: 10.1021/jm8003152. Epub 2008 Sep 13. [18788725 ]