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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:12 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:54 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2962
Identification
Common NameMethoxyflurane
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAn inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with nitrous oxide to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Compound Type
  • Anesthetic, Inhalation
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Lachrymator
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organofluoride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Methoflurane
Methoxiflurane
Methoxifluranum
Methoxyfluoran
Methoxyfluorane
Methoxyfluran
Methoxyfluranum
Methyl 1,1-difluoro-2,2-dichloroethyl ether
Metossiflurano
Metoxfluran
Metoxifluran
Metoxiflurano
Penthrane
Chemical FormulaC3H4Cl2F2O
Average Molecular Mass164.966 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass163.961 g/mol
CAS Registry Number76-38-0
IUPAC Name2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoro-1-methoxyethane
Traditional Namemethoxyflurane
SMILESCOC(F)(F)C(Cl)Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H4Cl2F2O/c1-8-3(6,7)2(4)5/h2H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=RFKMCNOHBTXSMU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkyl ethers. These are organic compounds containing the dialkyl ether functional group, with the formula ROR', where R and R' are alkyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassEthers
Direct ParentDialkyl ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-35°C
Boiling Point105°C
Solubility2.83E+004 mg/L (at 37°C)
LogP2.21
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.46 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.01ALOGPS
logP2.31ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity27.97 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.46 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-001i-9300000000-2b014e075c584d7d00e8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03e9-0900000000-31aa3948ca3dc3167617View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-286e18d415df7a2ecce2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-a0e34ecec1f1427e9b36View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-5826e7c4a8fc419eecaaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03dl-0900000000-38434e069c688783ff1cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03ec-0900000000-f972b01b9fa825e56f30View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9100000000-e9387eb71a01da84865eView in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral
Mechanism of ToxicityMethoxyflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Methoxyflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Methoxyflurane also binds to the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glutamate receptor and the glycine receptor.
MetabolismHepatic.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 3600 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (1)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsDetrimental effects on the kidneys. [Wikipedia]
SymptomsSymptoms of overexposure include eye irritation, CNS depression, analgesia, anesthesia, seizures, respiratory depression, and liver and kidney damage.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01028
HMDB IDHMDB15162
PubChem Compound ID4116
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1341
ChemSpider ID3973
KEGG IDC07517
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID384208
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDMethoxyflurane
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMethoxyflurane
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  2. Drugs.com [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Cytochrome b5 is a membrane bound hemoprotein which function as an electron carrier for several membrane bound oxygenases.
Gene Name:
CYB5A
Uniprot ID:
P00167
Molecular Weight:
15329.985 Da
References
  1. Zhang H, Myshkin E, Waskell L: Role of cytochrome b5 in catalysis by cytochrome P450 2B4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 9;338(1):499-506. Epub 2005 Sep 15. [16182240 ]
  2. Waskell L, Canova-Davis E, Philpot R, Parandoush Z, Chiang JY: Identification of the enzymes catalyzing metabolism of methoxyflurane. Drug Metab Dispos. 1986 Nov-Dec;14(6):643-8. [2877820 ]
  3. Lipka JJ, Waskell LA: Methoxyflurane acts at the substrate binding site of cytochrome P450 LM2 to induce a dependence on cytochrome b5. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989 Jan;268(1):152-60. [2912373 ]
  4. Canova-Davis E, Chiang JY, Waskell L: Obligatory role of cytochrome b5 in the microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Jun 1;34(11):1907-12. [2988561 ]
  5. Canova-Davis E, Waskell L: The identification of the heat-stable microsomal protein required for methoxyflurane metabolism as cytochrome b5. J Biol Chem. 1984 Feb 25;259(4):2541-6. [6698981 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP turnover in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Part of the complex F(1) domain and of the central stalk which is part of the complex rotary element. Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3)beta(3) subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits.
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular Weight:
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist. In the presence of CACNG4 or CACNG7 or CACNG8, shows resensitization which is characterized by a delayed accumulation of current flux upon continued application of glutamate.
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular Weight:
52623.35 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Nadh dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific Function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular Weight:
35660.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:19903818). Contributes to the regulation of the membrane potential and nerve signaling, and prevents neuronal hyperexcitability (PubMed:17156368). Forms tetrameric potassium-selective channels through which potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. The channel alternates between opened and closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane (PubMed:19912772). Can form functional homotetrameric channels and heterotetrameric channels that contain variable proportions of KCNA1, KCNA2, KCNA4, KCNA5, KCNA6, KCNA7, and possibly other family members as well; channel properties depend on the type of alpha subunits that are part of the channel (PubMed:12077175, PubMed:17156368). Channel properties are modulated by cytoplasmic beta subunits that regulate the subcellular location of the alpha subunits and promote rapid inactivation of delayed rectifier potassium channels (PubMed:12077175, PubMed:17156368). In vivo, membranes probably contain a mixture of heteromeric potassium channel complexes, making it difficult to assign currents observed in intact tissues to any particular potassium channel family member. Homotetrameric KCNA1 forms a delayed-rectifier potassium channel that opens in response to membrane depolarization, followed by slow spontaneous channel closure (PubMed:19912772, PubMed:19968958, PubMed:19307729, PubMed:19903818). In contrast, a heterotetrameric channel formed by KCNA1 and KCNA4 shows rapid inactivation (PubMed:17156368). Regulates neuronal excitability in hippocampus, especially in mossy fibers and medial perforant path axons, preventing neuronal hyperexcitability. Response to toxins that are selective for KCNA1, respectively for KCNA2, suggests that heteromeric potassium channels composed of both KCNA1 and KCNA2 play a role in pacemaking and regulate the output of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons (By similarity). May function as down-stream effector for G protein-coupled receptors and inhibit GABAergic inputs to basolateral amygdala neurons (By similarity). May contribute to the regulation of neurotransmitter release, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release (By similarity). Plays a role in regulating the generation of action potentials and preventing hyperexcitability in myelinated axons of the vagus nerve, and thereby contributes to the regulation of heart contraction (By similarity). Required for normal neuromuscular responses (PubMed:11026449, PubMed:17136396). Regulates the frequency of neuronal action potential firing in response to mechanical stimuli, and plays a role in the perception of pain caused by mechanical stimuli, but does not play a role in the perception of pain due to heat stimuli (By similarity). Required for normal responses to auditory stimuli and precise location of sound sources, but not for sound perception (By similarity). The use of toxins that block specific channels suggest that it contributes to the regulation of the axonal release of the neurotransmitter dopamine (By similarity). Required for normal postnatal brain development and normal proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in the brain (By similarity). Plays a role in the reabsorption of Mg(2+) in the distal convoluted tubules in the kidney and in magnesium ion homeostasis, probably via its effect on the membrane potential (PubMed:23903368, PubMed:19307729).
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular Weight:
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]
10. GABA-A receptor (anion channel) (Protein Group)
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Included Proteins:
P14867 , P47869 , P34903 , P48169 , P31644 , Q16445 , P18505 , P47870 , P28472 , O14764 , P78334 , Q8N1C3 , P18507 , Q99928 , O00591 , Q9UN88