Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:42 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3028
Identification
Common NameL-Dopa
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionL-Dopa is used for the treatment of Parkinsonian disorders and Dopa-Responsive Dystonia and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. Peripheral tissue conversion may be the mechanism of the adverse effects of levodopa. It is standard clinical practice to co-administer a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor - carbidopa or benserazide - and often a catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor, to prevent synthesis of dopamine in peripheral tissue. The naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. [PubChem] L-Dopa is the naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, L-Dopa can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. In particular, it is metabolized to dopamine by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is a required cofactor for this decarboxylation, and may be administered along with levodopa, usually as pyridoxine.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Antidyskinetic
  • Antiparkinson Agent
  • Dopamine Agent
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(-)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
(-)-Dopa
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
(−)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
(−)-dopa
3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine
b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-a-L-alanine
b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
Bendopa
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-alpha-L-alanine
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
Bidopal
Cidandopa
Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopaflex
Dopaidan
Dopal
Dopalina
Dopar
Doparkine
Doparl
Dopasol
Dopaston
Dopastone
Dopastral
Dopicar
Doprin
Eldopal
Eldopar
Eldopatec
Eurodopa
Helfo-dopa
Insulamina
L-(-)-Dopa
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
L-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-Alanine
L-4-5-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
L-b-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-a-alanine
L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-alpha-alanine
L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Laradopa
Larodopa
Ledopa
Levedopa
Levodopa
Levodopum
Levopa
Maipedopa
Parda
Pardopa
Prodopa
Syndopa
Veldopa
Weldopa
β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO4
Average Molecular Mass197.188 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass197.069 g/mol
CAS Registry Number59-92-7
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional Namelevodopa
SMILES[H][C@](N)(CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=WTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tyrosine and derivatives. Tyrosine and derivatives are compounds containing tyrosine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of tyrosine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentTyrosine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tyrosine or derivatives
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Catechol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Intestine
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Striatum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063 map00380
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012 map00350
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006 map00350
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencySMP00170 Not Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point284-285°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility5000 mg/L (at 20°C)
LogP-2.39
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.3 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.78 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7eddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7eddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-1890000000-646d209fa1943582a336View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0690000000-720ed87e98a0d9f1721dView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fk9-3900000000-266d9baeda773fe1fb22View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-4193000000-8c76bf85d8a897e9403cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uea-0900000000-8eb71aa0cc8622f097a2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-2900000000-bf63b9b719959b82b543View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-056r-9300000000-a78b0b31dd33fe8479a7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0f6t-0911000000-15affa616923dfb9c45aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-22d8267801d0eb0b73c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-5e6020c952f741531fcbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0007-0970100000-49594dae82ce73e734e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-0030db588fbd92c5b761View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-544615463a975baae9e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0729111000-0a20b01f58fff8ad7ef0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-41515cba3a6929721859View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-8074c509ef5bae1129fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0502193020-497bfad7ba247159ca00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0029800000-05f40324c8c1fec7963aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0000090000-c0cd80185ce47b30e5feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18dfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udj-0900000000-cf54b26df05181b0d2fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-d506f2673b114b8e38d2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-8900000000-1699873cb7650f62b5bcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-a0d81bfc4868b0d1cbf9View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureLevodopa is rapidly absorbed from the proximal small intestine by the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport carrier system.
Mechanism of ToxicityStriatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine.
Metabolism95% of an administered oral dose of levodopa is pre-systemically decarboxylated to dopamine by the L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzyme in the stomach, lumen of the intestine, kidney, and liver. Levodopa also may be methoxylated by the hepatic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme system to 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which cannot be converted to central dopamine. Half Life: 50 to 90 minutes
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 2363 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (1) LD50: 609 mg/kg (Oral, Rabbit) (1) LD50: 1780 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (1)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication, and manganese intoxication.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentHospitalization is advised, and general supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage and repeated doses of charcoal over time. This may hasten the elimination of entacapone in particular, by decreasing its absorption/reabsorption from the GI tract. Intravenous fluids should be administered judiciously and an adequate airway maintained. The adequacy of the respiratory, circulatory and renal systems should be carefully monitored and appropriate supportive measures employed. Electrocardiographic monitoring should be instituted and the patient carefully observed for the development of arrhythmias; if required, appropriate antiarrhythmic therapy should be given. The possibility that the patient may have taken other drugs, increasing the risk of drug interactions (especially catechol-structured drugs) should be taken into consideration. Hemodialysis or hemoperfusion is unlikely to reduce entacapone levels due to its high binding to plasma proteins. (23)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01235
HMDB IDHMDB00181
PubChem Compound ID6047
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1009
ChemSpider ID5824
KEGG IDC00355
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID128230 , 134700 , 168100 , 182125 , 253320 , 261640 , 605407
ChEBI ID15765
BioCyc IDL-DOPA
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDLevodopa
PDB IDDAH
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLevodopa
References
Synthesis Reference

Vincenzo Cannata, Giancarlo Tamerlani, Mauro Morotti, “Process for the synthesis of the levodopa.” U.S. Patent US4962223, issued December, 1986.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  2. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [15200428 ]
  3. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [11011012 ]
  4. Cools R: Dopaminergic modulation of cognitive function-implications for L-DOPA treatment in Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(1):1-23. Epub 2005 Jun 1. [15935475 ]
  5. de Jong AP, Kok RM, Cramers CA, Wadman SK, Haan E: A new method for the determination of L-dopa and 3-O-methyldopa in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid using gas chromatography and electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 1988 Jan 15;171(1):49-61. [3127089 ]
  6. Dutton J, Copeland LG, Playfer JR, Roberts NB: Measuring L-dopa in plasma and urine to monitor therapy of elderly patients with Parkinson disease treated with L-dopa and a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor. Clin Chem. 1993 Apr;39(4):629-34. [8472357 ]
  7. Mercuri NB, Bernardi G: The 'magic' of L-dopa: why is it the gold standard Parkinson's disease therapy? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Jul;26(7):341-4. [15936832 ]
  8. Goldstein DS, Hahn SH, Holmes C, Tifft C, Harvey-White J, Milstien S, Kaufman S: Monoaminergic effects of folinic acid, L-DOPA, and 5-hydroxytryptophan in dihydropteridine reductase deficiency. J Neurochem. 1995 Jun;64(6):2810-3. [7760062 ]
  9. Kagedal B, Pettersson A: Liquid-chromatographic determination of 5-S-L-cysteinyl-L-dopa with electrochemical detection in urine prepurified with a phenylboronate affinity gel. Clin Chem. 1983 Dec;29(12):2031-4. [6416708 ]
  10. Dousa MK, Weinshilboum RM, Muenter MD, Offord KP, Decker PA, Tyce GM: L-DOPA biotransformation: correlations of dosage, erythrocyte catechol O-methyltransferase and platelet SULT1A3 activities with metabolic pathways in Parkinsonian patients. J Neural Transm. 2003 Aug;110(8):899-910. [12898345 ]
  11. Di Stefano A, Mosciatti B, Cingolani GM, Giorgioni G, Ricciutelli M, Cacciatore I, Sozio P, Claudi F: Dimeric L-dopa derivatives as potential prodrugs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Apr 23;11(8):1085-8. [11327596 ]
  12. Tada K, Kudo T, Kishimoto Y: Effects of L-dopa or dopamine on human decidual prostaglandin synthesis. Acta Med Okayama. 1991 Oct;45(5):333-8. [1755339 ]
  13. Crivellato E, Damiani D, Mallardi F: Comparison between the L-DOPA histofluorescence procedure and the indirect immunofluorescence with anti-T6 and -HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies in visualizing Langerhans cells of human epidermis. Acta Histochem. 1990;88(1):59-64. [2113342 ]
  14. Michel H, Solere M, Granier P, Cauvet G, Bali JP, Pons F, Bellet-Hermann H: Treatment of cirrhotic hepatic encephalopathy with L-dopa. A controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 1980 Aug;79(2):207-11. [6995221 ]
  15. Streifler M, Avrami E, Rabey JM: L-dopa and the secretion of sebum in Parkinsonian patients. Eur Neurol. 1980;19(1):43-8. [7371653 ]
  16. Hyland K, Clayton PT: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency: diagnostic methodology. Clin Chem. 1992 Dec;38(12):2405-10. [1281049 ]
  17. Vassiliou AG, Vassilacopoulou D, Fragoulis EG: Purification of an endogenous inhibitor of L-Dopa decarboxylase activity from human serum. Neurochem Res. 2005 May;30(5):641-9. [16176068 ]
  18. Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Kopin IJ: Sources and significance of plasma levels of catechols and their metabolites in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Jun;305(3):800-11. Epub 2003 Mar 20. [12649306 ]
  19. Chalimoniuk M, Stepien A: Influence of the therapy with pergolide mesylate plus L-DOPA and with L-DOPA alone on serum cGMP level in PD patients. Pol J Pharmacol. 2004 Sep-Oct;56(5):647-50. [15591656 ]
  20. Blandini F, Nappi G, Fancellu R, Mangiagalli A, Samuele A, Riboldazzi G, Calandrella D, Pacchetti C, Bono G, Martignoni E: Modifications of plasma and platelet levels of L-DOPA and its direct metabolites during treatment with tolcapone or entacapone in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm. 2003 Aug;110(8):911-22. [12898346 ]
  21. Shen H, Kannari K, Yamato H, Arai A, Matsunaga M: Effects of benserazide on L-DOPA-derived extracellular dopamine levels and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003 Mar;199(3):149-59. [12703659 ]
  22. Drugs.com [Link]
  23. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Dupre KB, Eskow KL, Negron G, Bishop C: The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2007 Jul 16;1158:135-43. Epub 2007 May 8. [17553470 ]
  2. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y: Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar;51(3):265-74. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [15710490 ]
  3. Chang CC, Shiah IS, Chang HA, Mao WC: Does domperidone potentiate mirtazapine-associated restless legs syndrome? Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;30(2):316-8. Epub 2005 Nov 23. [16309808 ]
  4. Zappia M, Annesi G, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi F, Messina D, Pugliese P, Spadafora P, Tarantino P, Carrideo S, Civitelli D, De Marco EV, Ciro-Candiano IC, Gambardella A, Quattrone A: Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):601-5. [15824260 ]
  5. Kovoor A, Seyffarth P, Ebert J, Barghshoon S, Chen CK, Schwarz S, Axelrod JD, Cheyette BN, Simon MI, Lester HA, Schwarz J: D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23;25(8):2157-65. [15728856 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular Weight:
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular Weight:
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [9633680 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PAH
Uniprot ID:
P00439
Molecular Weight:
51861.565 Da
References
  1. Erlandsen H, Flatmark T, Stevens RC, Hough E: Crystallographic analysis of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase catalytic domain with bound catechol inhibitors at 2.0 A resolution. Biochemistry. 1998 Nov 10;37(45):15638-46. [9843368 ]
General Function:
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular Weight:
78805.265 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50141200 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50130192
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [10052994 ]
General Function:
O-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the O-methylation, and thereby the inactivation, of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol hormones. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuroactive drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.
Gene Name:
COMT
Uniprot ID:
P21964
Molecular Weight:
30036.77 Da