You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:21:45 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:46 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4319
Common NameL-Glutamine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionL-Glutamine (Gln) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. Its side chain is an amide; it is formed by replacing a side-chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group. glutamine is found in foods high in proteins, such as fish, red meat, beans, and dairy products. glutamine is a supplement that is used in weightlifting, bodybuilding, endurance and other sports, as well as by those who suffer from muscular cramps or pain particularly elderly people. The main use of glutamine within the diet of either group is as a means of replenishing the body's stores of amino acids that have been used during exercise or everyday activities. Studies which are looking into problems with excessive consumption of glutamine thus far have proved inconclusive. However, normal supplementation is healthy mainly because glutamine is supposed to be supplemented after prolonged periods of exercise (for example, a workout or exercise in which amino acids are required for use) and replenishes amino acid stores; this being the main reason glutamine is recommended during fasting or for people who suffer from physical trauma, immune deficiencies, or cancer. There is a significant body of evidence that links glutamine-enriched diets with intestinal effects; aiding maintenance of gut barrier function, intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as generally reducing septic morbidity and the symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. The reason for such cleansing properties is thought to stem from the fact that the intestinal extraction rate of glutamine is higher than that for other amino acids, and is therefore thought to be the most viable option when attempting to alleviate conditions relating to the gastrointestinal tract. These conditions were discovered after comparing plasma concentration within the gut between glutamine-enriched and non glutamine-enriched diets. However, even though glutamine is thought to have cleansing properties and effects, it is unknown to what extent glutamine has clinical benefits, due to the varied concentrations of glutamine in varieties of food. It is also known that glutamine has various effects in reducing healing time after operations. Hospital waiting times after abdominal surgery are reduced by providing parenteral nutrition regimens containing amounts of glutamine to patients. Clinical trials have revealed that patients on supplementation regimes containing glutamine have improved nitrogen balances, generation of cysteinyl-leukotrienes from polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes and improved lymphocyte recovery and intestinal permeability (in postoperative patients) - in comparison to those who had no glutamine within their dietary regime; all without any side-effects. It is synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia. It is the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Non-Essential Amino Acid
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
  • Supplement
Chemical Structure
(2S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
(S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid
2-Aminoglutaramic acid
Earthlink Science Glutamine Chews Chocolate
Glutamic acid 5-amide
Glutamic acid amide
Glutamine Express
Glutamine Fuel Mega
Glutamine fuel powder
L-2-Aminoglutaramic acid
L-2-Aminoglutaramidic acid
L-Glutamic acid 5-amide
L-Glutamic acid gamma-amide
L-glutamic acid γ-amide
L-Glutamine Power
Chemical FormulaC5H10N2O3
Average Molecular Mass146.145 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass146.069 g/mol
CAS Registry Number56-85-9
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid
Traditional NameL-glutamine
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C5H10N2O3/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H2,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Fatty acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gut
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045 map00520
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009 map00910
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072 map00250
Phenylacetate MetabolismSMP00126 map00360
Purine MetabolismSMP00050 map00230
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046 map00240
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019 Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059 Not Available
Citrullinemia Type ISMP00001 Not Available
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)SMP00205 Not Available
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236 Not Available
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting Point185.5 dec°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility4.13E+004 mg/L (at 25°C)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility97.8 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.41 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity33.11 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.87 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-adb283bb40327f705680JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-134e80840320dadf6ad1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05fr-7910000000-89f87d4acc18299244f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-952a471cad5e5ead0a7eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-1961000000-94183211889cfe72d4ffJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-6505cd814f3707a0febaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-004i-0692000000-9788416fdefb051b9586JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-adb283bb40327f705680JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-134e80840320dadf6ad1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dj-4921200000-5446333d9aa592da8a07JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-05fr-7910000000-89f87d4acc18299244f5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-952a471cad5e5ead0a7eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1961000000-94183211889cfe72d4ffJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1920000000-6505cd814f3707a0febaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0692000000-9788416fdefb051b9586JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0910000000-ce2b15fe45c57a30c6bbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ab9-1900000000-7be5eab1056d2a249ab5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-5dc2d147bea250c7b80eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fb9-0921000000-5dcbab01982f543f7925JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004j-0940000000-102c9a43b5153f06927fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-716b1947d48f42862cdfJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9610000000-bfd7aa529a6e7f62de43JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0059-3900000000-c8f487d1a561e49327c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-eee04836e7577e11d0d0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-54ffbe5be8d7dbede389JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-79283391c985f8286677JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-6afbd5929b6e2371a371JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d5bd83614703b048228eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-dc8def340a2655f9a399JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-47e3e94a4387c53e0bd6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c1acfa3750a90d81ce15JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-93f01bccbc98f18d4b07JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-ce03708ec9ce55cd8952JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933201000-9339494cebedd9c39135JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-64561a4c3590d5994e37JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fdcdd7591fb182d804e2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03dm-0030900000-66314ae704783630947aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0933100000-8798d2e46a415bb1029aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-dddea137e500a9b364ccJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-a78f8e4b2d6b37917b21JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0920000000-8c6e1eb7de6f70911080JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-fa42fc4bcba608992804JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-2900000000-074610880ea19a417f60JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-059x-9200000000-8b7dae54eb8325667bd7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-e115d9215eea3f0c3629JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-55b1ac62eea66274b984JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001j-0900000000-c9c71895033d66cb2becJSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9000000000-bc4e294b8a3fd8c5abceJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureAbsorption is efficient and occurs by an active transport mechanism
Mechanism of ToxicitySupplemental L-glutamine's possible immunomodulatory role may be accounted for in a number of ways. L-glutamine appears to play a major role in protecting the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and, in particular, the large intestine. During catabolic states, the integrity of the intestinal mucosa may be compromised with consequent increased intestinal permeability and translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine into the body. The demand for L-glutamine by the intestine, as well as by cells such as lymphocytes, appears to be much greater than that supplied by skeletal muscle, the major storage tissue for L-glutamine. L-glutamine is the preferred respiratory fuel for enterocytes, colonocytes and lymphocytes. Therefore, supplying supplemental L-glutamine under these conditions may do a number of things. For one, it may reverse the catabolic state by sparing skeletal muscle L-glutamine. It also may inhibit translocation of Gram-negative bacteria from the large intestine. L-glutamine helps maintain secretory IgA, which functions primarily by preventing the attachment of bacteria to mucosal cells. L-glutamine appears to be required to support the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, as well as the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). It is also required for the maintenance of lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK). L-glutamine can enhance phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. It can lead to an increased synthesis of glutathione in the intestine, which may also play a role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa by ameliorating oxidative stress. The exact mechanism of the possible immunomodulatory action of supplemental L-glutamine, however, remains unclear. It is conceivable that the major effect of L-glutamine occurs at the level of the intestine. Perhaps enteral L-glutamine acts directly on intestine-associated lymphoid tissue and stimulates overall immune function by that mechanism, without passing beyond the splanchnic bed.
MetabolismEnterocytes, Hepatic
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesUsed for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00130
PubChem Compound ID5961
ChemSpider ID5746
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID18050
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkL-Glutamine
Synthesis Reference

Stephen Paul, “Novel preparation of fiber, L-glutamine and a soy derivative for the purpose of enhancement of isoflavone bioavailability.” U.S. Patent US20020076455, issued June 20, 2002.

General References
  1. Boza JJ, Dangin M, Moennoz D, Montigon F, Vuichoud J, Jarret A, Pouteau E, Gremaud G, Oguey-Araymon S, Courtois D, Woupeyi A, Finot PA, Ballevre O: Free and protein-bound glutamine have identical splanchnic extraction in healthy human volunteers. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Jul;281(1):G267-74. [11408280 ]
  2. McAnena OJ, Moore FA, Moore EE, Jones TN, Parsons P: Selective uptake of glutamine in the gastrointestinal tract: confirmation in a human study. Br J Surg. 1991 Apr;78(4):480-2. [1903318 ]
  3. Morlion BJ, Stehle P, Wachtler P, Siedhoff HP, Koller M, Konig W, Furst P, Puchstein C: Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine dipeptide after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Ann Surg. 1998 Feb;227(2):302-8. [9488531 ]
  4. Jian ZM, Cao JD, Zhu XG, Zhao WX, Yu JC, Ma EL, Wang XR, Zhu MW, Shu H, Liu YW: The impact of alanyl-glutamine on clinical safety, nitrogen balance, intestinal permeability, and clinical outcome in postoperative patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study of 120 patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999 Sep-Oct;23(5 Suppl):S62-6. [10483898 ]
  5. Szebenyi G, Morfini GA, Babcock A, Gould M, Selkoe K, Stenoien DL, Young M, Faber PW, MacDonald ME, McPhaul MJ, Brady ST: Neuropathogenic forms of huntingtin and androgen receptor inhibit fast axonal transport. Neuron. 2003 Sep 25;40(1):41-52. [14527432 ]
  6. Wada A, Yoshida R, Oda K, Fukuba E, Uchida N, Kitagaki H: Acute encephalopathy associated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Oct;26(9):2311-5. [16219838 ]
  7. Pennisi P, Gavrilova O, Setser-Portas J, Jou W, Santopietro S, Clemmons D, Yakar S, LeRoith D: Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I treatment inhibits gluconeogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrinology. 2006 Jun;147(6):2619-30. Epub 2006 Mar 2. [16513827 ]
  8. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
  9. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
  10. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
  11. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. [15627241 ]
  12. Redjems-Bennani N, Jeandel C, Lefebvre E, Blain H, Vidailhet M, Gueant JL: Abnormal substrate levels that depend upon mitochondrial function in cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer patients. Gerontology. 1998;44(5):300-4. [9693263 ]
  13. Avila J, Barbaro B, Gangemi A, Romagnoli T, Kuechle J, Hansen M, Shapiro J, Testa G, Sankary H, Benedetti E, Lakey J, Oberholzer J: Intra-ductal glutamine administration reduces oxidative injury during human pancreatic islet isolation. Am J Transplant. 2005 Dec;5(12):2830-7. [16302995 ]
  14. Cooper AJ: Ammonia metabolism in normal and portacaval-shunted rats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990;272:23-46. [2103690 ]
  15. Melis GC, Boelens PG, van der Sijp JR, Popovici T, De Bandt JP, Cynober L, van Leeuwen PA: The feeding route (enteral or parenteral) affects the plasma response of the dipetide Ala-Gln and the amino acids glutamine, citrulline and arginine, with the administration of Ala-Gln in preoperative patients. Br J Nutr. 2005 Jul;94(1):19-26. [16115328 ]
  16. Choudry HA, Pan M, Karinch AM, Souba WW: Branched-chain amino acid-enriched nutritional support in surgical and cancer patients. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1 Suppl):314S-8S. [16365105 ]
  17. Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. [1931558 ]
  18. Frayn KN, Khan K, Coppack SW, Elia M: Amino acid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991 May;80(5):471-4. [1851687 ]
  19. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  20. Coeffier M, Miralles-Barrachina O, Le Pessot F, Lalaude O, Daveau M, Lavoinne A, Lerebours E, Dechelotte P: Influence of glutamine on cytokine production by human gut in vitro. Cytokine. 2001 Feb 7;13(3):148-54. [11161457 ]
  21. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
  22. Rutten EP, Engelen MP, Wouters EF, Schols AM, Deutz NE: Metabolic effects of glutamine and glutamate ingestion in healthy subjects and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):115-23. [16400059 ]
  23. van der Hulst RR, von Meyenfeldt MF, Deutz NE, Soeters PB: Glutamine extraction by the gut is reduced in depleted [corrected] patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Ann Surg. 1997 Jan;225(1):112-21. [8998127 ]
  24. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
  25. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function:
This enzyme has 2 functions: it catalyzes the production of glutamine and 4-aminobutanoate (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA), the latter in a pyridoxal phosphate-independent manner (By similarity). Essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
42064.15 Da
  1. Mong JA, Blutstein T: Estradiol modulation of astrocytic form and function: implications for hormonal control of synaptic communication. Neuroscience. 2006;138(3):967-75. Epub 2005 Dec 2. [16326016 ]
  2. Rose C, Felipo V: Limited capacity for ammonia removal by brain in chronic liver failure: potential role of nitric oxide. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Dec;20(4):275-83. [16382338 ]
  3. Miguel-Hidalgo JJ: Withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption results in increased packing density of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in the prelimbic cortex of alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 Jul-Aug;41(4):379-85. Epub 2006 Feb 16. [16484281 ]
  4. Chatauret N, Desjardins P, Zwingmann C, Rose C, Rao KV, Butterworth RF: Direct molecular and spectroscopic evidence for increased ammonia removal capacity of skeletal muscle in acute liver failure. J Hepatol. 2006 Jun;44(6):1083-8. Epub 2006 Jan 4. [16530878 ]
  5. Tan S, Evans R, Singh B: Herbicidal inhibitors of amino acid biosynthesis and herbicide-tolerant crops. Amino Acids. 2006 Mar;30(2):195-204. Epub 2006 Mar 20. [16547651 ]
General Function:
Ctp synthase activity
Specific Function:
This enzyme is involved in the de novo synthesis of CTP, a precursor of DNA, RNA and phospholipids. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as a source of nitrogen. This enzyme and its product, CTP, play a crucial role in the proliferation of activated lymphocytes and therefore in immunity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
66689.9 Da
  1. MacLeod TJ, Lunn FA, Bearne SL: The role of lysine residues 297 and 306 in nucleoside triphosphate regulation of E. coli CTP synthase: inactivation by 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP and mutational analyses. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Feb;1764(2):199-210. Epub 2005 Dec 27. [16427816 ]
  2. Taylor SD, Mirzaei F, Sharifi A, Bearne SL: Synthesis of methylene- and difluoromethylenephosphonate analogues of uridine-4-phosphate and 3-deazauridine-4-phosphate. J Org Chem. 2006 Dec 8;71(25):9420-30. [17137369 ]
  3. Fijolek A, Hofer A, Thelander L: Expression, purification, characterization, and in vivo targeting of trypanosome CTP synthetase for treatment of African sleeping sickness. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 20;282(16):11858-65. Epub 2007 Feb 28. [17331943 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
57398.52 Da
  1. Jiang P, Pioszak AA, Ninfa AJ: Structure-function analysis of glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase, EC of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 3;46(13):4117-32. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [17355124 ]
  2. Jiang P, Mayo AE, Ninfa AJ: Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase, EC kinetic characterization of regulation by PII, PII-UMP, glutamine, and alpha-ketoglutarate. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 3;46(13):4133-46. Epub 2007 Mar 14. [17355125 ]