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Record Information
Creation Date2014-08-30 21:04:00 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4557
Common NameDesloratadine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDesloratadine is a second generation, tricyclic antihistamine that which has a selective and peripheral H1-antagonist action. It is the active descarboethoxy metabolite of loratidine (a second generation histamine). Desloratidine has a long-lasting effect and does not cause drowsiness because it does not readily enter the central nervous system.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Cholinergic Antagonist
  • Drug
  • Histamine Antagonist
  • Histamine H1 Antagonist, Non-Sedating
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Chemical FormulaC19H19ClN2
Average Molecular Mass310.821 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass310.124 g/mol
CAS Registry Number100643-71-8
IUPAC Name13-chloro-2-(piperidin-4-ylidene)-4-azatricyclo[³,⁸]pentadeca-1(11),3(8),4,6,12,14-hexaene
Traditional Nameclarinex
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C19H19ClN2/c20-16-5-6-17-15(12-16)4-3-14-2-1-9-22-19(14)18(17)13-7-10-21-11-8-13/h1-2,5-6,9,12,21H,3-4,7-8,10-11H2
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzocycloheptapyridines. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring and a pyridine ring fused to a seven membered carbocycle.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzocycloheptapyridines
Alternative Parents
  • Benzocycloheptapyridine
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Piperidine
  • Pyridine
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Azacycle
  • Amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.004 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.73ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area24.92 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity101.04 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability34.35 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00pm-1090000000-22109c83f6d7364ec27f2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-08fr-0095000000-2816aba50d0b94d568cf2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-08fr-0095000000-5b3f7555b72461661fa12017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-0940000000-d20368a648c20c37e1a02017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-08fr-0095000000-2816aba50d0b94d568cf2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0a4i-0940000000-9a0f5f4d81f4c42c85bb2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-08fr-0095000000-5b3f7555b72461661fa12017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0bt9-0094000000-536b5a1d05f7479c2b042017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-4cdd75cfb5b6a95978ee2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0091000000-702ea1b0afc5802588fe2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-08fr-0094000000-5d18c689b0d8db209b612021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-0a46374188b55ae72bbb2021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Positivesplash10-0bt9-0094000000-c7895278fdf48ea14ae72021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-8a8858c86845b74e96f32021-09-20View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 50V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-0090000000-fe6da9796038e735965f2021-09-20View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0019000000-1fb53cf6a1a948b666162016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-5098000000-08255511bea5c886b9102016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9040000000-e8c991ebd37a0b0c25442016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-3a9994f7ccd4384824612016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-1029000000-5f479948c9e9c3620d412016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-007p-5190000000-6fbaf13ffa17c703d90d2016-08-03View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-c678c7bde266b8b7c5612021-10-11View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-40e78516a505b8e5b66e2021-10-11View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6s-0190000000-d26af4a5ad57450875ac2021-10-11View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-3adde6a718d7e97498aa2021-10-11View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-053r-9005000000-07072a7bbfb51b9420542021-10-11View Spectrum
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityLike other H1-blockers, Desloratadine competes with free histamine for binding at H1-receptors in the GI tract, uterus, large blood vessels, and bronchial smooth muscle. This blocks the action of endogenous histamine, which subsequently leads to temporary relief of the negative symptoms (eg. nasal congestion, watery eyes) brought on by histamine.
Metabolism Route of Elimination: Desloratadine (a major metabolite of loratadine) is extensively metabolized to 3-hydroxydesloratadine, an active metabolite, which is subsequently glucuronidated. Approximately 87% of a 14C-desloratadine dose was equally recovered in urine and feces. Half Life: 50 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis, perennial (non-seasonal) allergic rhinitis. Desloratidine is also used for the sympomatic treatment of pruritus and urticaria (hives) associated with chronic idiopathic urticaria.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00967
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID124087
ChemSpider ID110575
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
ChEBI ID291342
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDesloratadine
Synthesis Reference

Zoltan Toth, “Processes for preparation of polymorphic forms of desloratadine.” U.S. Patent US20040242619, issued December 02, 2004.

General References
  1. Mann RD, Pearce GL, Dunn N, Shakir S: Sedation with "non-sedating" antihistamines: four prescription-event monitoring studies in general practice. BMJ. 2000 Apr 29;320(7243):1184-6. [10784544 ]
  2. Glass DJ, Harper AS: Assessing satisfaction with desloratadine and fexofenadine in allergy patients who report dissatisfaction with loratadine. BMC Fam Pract. 2003 Aug 13;4:10. Epub 2003 Aug 13. [12917016 ]
  3. See S: Desloratadine for allergic rhinitis. Am Fam Physician. 2003 Nov 15;68(10):2015-6. [14655812 ]
  4. Devillier P, Roche N, Faisy C: Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of desloratadine, fexofenadine and levocetirizine : a comparative review. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(4):217-30. [18336052 ]
  5. Bachert C: A review of the efficacy of desloratadine, fexofenadine, and levocetirizine in the treatment of nasal congestion in patients with allergic rhinitis. Clin Ther. 2009 May;31(5):921-44. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.05.017. [19539095 ]
  6. DuBuske L: Desloratadine for chronic idiopathic urticaria: a review of clinical efficacy. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2007;8(5):271-83. [17902729 ]
  7. Bachert C, Maurer M: Safety and efficacy of desloratadine in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis or chronic urticaria: results of four postmarketing surveillance studies. Clin Drug Investig. 2010;30(2):109-22. doi: 10.2165/11530930-000000000-00000. [20067329 ]
  8. Simons FE, Prenner BM, Finn A Jr: Efficacy and safety of desloratadine in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Mar;111(3):617-22. [12642846 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available


General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.00097 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073179
  1. Wu RL, Anthes JC, Kreutner W, Harris AG, West RE Jr: Desloratadine inhibits constitutive and histamine-stimulated nuclear factor-kappaB activity consistent with inverse agonism at the histamine H1 Receptor. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004 Dec;135(4):313-8. Epub 2004 Nov 24. [15564772 ]
  2. Cieslewicz G, Gondorowicz K, Grzelewska-Rzymowska I, Rozniecki J: [Effect of loratadine, selective antagonist of histamine H1 receptors, on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 1995;63(5-6):281-5. [7581058 ]
  3. Letari O, Miozzo A, Folco G, Belloni PA, Sala A, Rovati GE, Nicosia S: Effects of loratadine on cytosolic Ca2+ levels and leukotriene release: novel mechanisms of action independent of the anti-histamine activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 1994 Feb 15;266(3):219-27. [8174605 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  5. Devillier P, Roche N, Faisy C: Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of desloratadine, fexofenadine and levocetirizine : a comparative review. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(4):217-30. [18336052 ]
  6. DuBuske L: Desloratadine for chronic idiopathic urticaria: a review of clinical efficacy. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2007;8(5):271-83. [17902729 ]
  7. Simons FE, Prenner BM, Finn A Jr: Efficacy and safety of desloratadine in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Mar;111(3):617-22. [12642846 ]
  8. Dhanya NB, Thasleem Z, Rai R, Srinivas CR: Comparative efficacy of levocetirizine, desloratidine and fexofenadine by histamine wheal suppression test. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008 Jul-Aug;74(4):361-3. [18797058 ]
  9. Lewis TA, Young MA, Arrington MP, Bayless L, Cai X, Collart P, Eckman JB, Ellis JL, Ene DG, Libertine L, Nicolas JM, Scannell RT, Wels BF, Wenberg K, Wypij DM: Cetirizine and loratadine-based antihistamines with 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Nov 15;14(22):5591-4. [15482930 ]
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC5043 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073179
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Evaluation of the interaction of loratadine and desloratadine with P-glycoprotein. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Aug;29(8):1080-3. [11454724 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential subunit of the farnesyltransferase complex. Catalyzes the transfer of a farnesyl moiety from farnesyl diphosphate to a cysteine at the fourth position from the C-terminus of several proteins having the C-terminal sequence Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-X.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
48773.2 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>65 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50073179
  1. Cooper AB, Strickland CL, Wang J, Desai J, Kirschmeier P, Patton R, Bishop WR, Weber PC, Girijavallabhan V: Synthesis of 5,6-dihydro-11H-benzo[5,6]-cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-11-ylidene)-1-piperidine-N-cy anoguanidine derivatives as inhibitors of ras farnesyl protein transferase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002 Feb 25;12(4):601-5. [11844681 ]