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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:17:27 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4807
Identification
Common NameOxybenzone
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionOxybenzone is an organic compound used in sunscreens. It is a derivative of benzophenone. It forms colorless crystals that are readily soluble in most organic solvents. It is used as an ingredient in sunscreen and other cosmetics because it absorbs UV-A ultraviolet rays.
Compound Type
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Sunscreening Agent
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(2-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)phenylmethanone
2-Benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol
2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone
4-Methoxy-2-hydroxybenzophenone
4-Methoxy-2-hydroxybenzophenone butyric acid
Benzophenone-3
Oxibenzona
Oxybenzonum
Chemical FormulaC14H12O3
Average Molecular Mass228.243 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass228.079 g/mol
CAS Registry Number131-57-7
IUPAC Name2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol
Traditional Nameoxybenzone
SMILESCOC1=CC(O)=C(C=C1)C(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C14H12O3/c1-17-11-7-8-12(13(15)9-11)14(16)10-5-3-2-4-6-10/h2-9,15H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=DXGLGDHPHMLXJC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzophenones. These are organic compounds containing a ketone attached to two phenyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzophenones
Direct ParentBenzophenones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzophenone
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Aryl-phenylketone
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Anisole
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Benzoyl
  • Aryl ketone
  • Phenol ether
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Ketone
  • Ether
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point65.5°C
Boiling Point155°C at 5.00E+00 mm Hg
SolubilityNot Available
LogP3.79
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.13 g/LALOGPS
logP3.35ALOGPS
logP3.62ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity65.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.96 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0390000000-d20281152dd02868f0f4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1190000000-c313f66363430324ce8eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-0390000000-d20281152dd02868f0f4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-004i-1190000000-c313f66363430324ce8eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-116r-3940000000-a08f2fbf12b371790d68JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05i9-7590000000-722f71d95a4db2587c75JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-25520d89872ff52a3ed3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0090000000-91e535fa71de15e79004JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0390000000-440768455ae7530c1909JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0910000000-d7fdecc4ef3f7a731749JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-e961d0acc366c6018be1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-1900000000-7c8fdbbdfd111f438a02JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0zfs-5900000000-daad8bf207afcb7e0b35JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0090000000-f005541a3bcdeecd4a50JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0390000000-4d6d607f4d00d653af57JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0910000000-5bd3907cf283f3acd696JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-2952f2aadcf45f405c21JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-1900000000-d9d09a5a4ce6a4afa1f2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0zfs-5900000000-bd6b959b532a530b3906JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-c3d717596cccd924dc19JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-004i-0590000000-4e2b5ecc7de18b351252JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-465387cfd8d500df1516JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-004j-9400000000-e9226c86961ff5d9d15bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0ufr-0940000000-2a55f01ddfa3b0ff8f42JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0ufr-0950000000-1544559b42fcf578bf82JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0190000000-1c88d49c7e5e54c22dd9JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-2590000000-9ca9837a82a21062e38bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-002f-9600000000-41ed0c81cc277f1f44a1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0390000000-ef128eea7b7d7e7dbcdfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0920000000-97ee31aa08ce2b10ba9cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-3900000000-ddc34f664246caca67e2JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0fb9-5970000000-201ffa188f10c8981e9eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityOxybenzone absorbs UV-A ultraviolet rays, preventing them from reaching the skin.
MetabolismRoute of Elimination: In vivo studies show oxybenzone is abosorbed transdermally (through the skin) and is excreted in the urine.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesUsed as an ingredient in sunscreen and other cosmetics.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01428
HMDB IDHMDB15497
PubChem Compound ID4632
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1625
ChemSpider ID4471
KEGG IDC14285
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID34283
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC005290
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkOxybenzone
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Gonzalez H, Farbrot A, Larko O, Wennberg AM: Percutaneous absorption of the sunscreen benzophenone-3 after repeated whole-body applications, with and without ultraviolet irradiation. Br J Dermatol. 2006 Feb;154(2):337-40. [16433806 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.9 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
  2. Matsumoto H, Adachi S, Suzuki Y: [Estrogenic activity of ultraviolet absorbers and the related compounds]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005 Aug;125(8):643-52. [16079615 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
References
  1. Schreurs RH, Sonneveld E, Jansen JH, Seinen W, van der Burg B: Interaction of polycyclic musks and UV filters with the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) in reporter gene bioassays. Toxicol Sci. 2005 Feb;83(2):264-72. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [15537743 ]
  2. Araki N, Ohno K, Nakai M, Takeyoshi M, Iida M: Screening for androgen receptor activities in 253 industrial chemicals by in vitro reporter gene assays using AR-EcoScreen cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2005 Sep;19(6):831-42. [15950433 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Matsumoto H, Adachi S, Suzuki Y: [Estrogenic activity of ultraviolet absorbers and the related compounds]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005 Aug;125(8):643-52. [16079615 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.24 uMTox21_Aromatase_InhibitionTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
References
  1. Schreurs RH, Sonneveld E, Jansen JH, Seinen W, van der Burg B: Interaction of polycyclic musks and UV filters with the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) in reporter gene bioassays. Toxicol Sci. 2005 Feb;83(2):264-72. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [15537743 ]