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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:02 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0072
Identification
Common Name2-Oxohexane
ClassSmall Molecule
Description2-Oxohexane is a volatile organic compound. 2-Oxohexane is occasionally found as a volatile component of normal human biofluids. 2-Oxohexane is an hexacarbon solvent; the neurotoxicity of hexacarbon solvents has become apparent and an extensive literature has already developed as a result of the clinical and epidemiological implications of the human disease. The main neurological disorders associated with chronic volatile substance are peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar disease, chronic encephalopathy and dementia. Apart from peripheral neuropathy, the clinical features are non-specific, evidence for solvent-related toxicity is in most cases circumstantial and there is no clear dose/response relationship. (3, 4, 5).
Compound Type
  • Food Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Ketone
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Solvent
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Hexanone
2-Hexanone Methyl N-butyl ketone
Butyl methyl ketone
Hexan-2-one
Methyl butyl ketone
Methyl N-butyl ketone
MNBK
N-Butyl methyl ketone
Propylacetone
Chemical FormulaC6H12O
Average Molecular Mass100.159 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass100.089 g/mol
CAS Registry Number591-78-6
IUPAC Namehexan-2-one
Traditional Namehexanone
SMILESCCCCC(C)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C6H12O/c1-3-4-5-6(2)7/h3-5H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=QQZOPKMRPOGIEB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ketones. These are organic compounds in which a carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms R2C=O (neither R may be a hydrogen atom). Ketones that have one or more alpha-hydrogen atoms undergo keto-enol tautomerization, the tautomer being an enol.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentKetones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ketone
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-55.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility17.5 mg/mL at 20°C
LogP1.38
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility8.14 g/LALOGPS
logP1.45ALOGPS
logP1.7ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.64ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity30.02 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability12.26 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-b9a2ab16adfdd94ece2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-c9c9e98957d1fde0dce7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-a8db7120c386c93d25ffJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-858b1e62ef5dfd041bafJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-e2acd59c62ae4caefc56JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-b9a2ab16adfdd94ece2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-c9c9e98957d1fde0dce7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-a8db7120c386c93d25ffJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-858b1e62ef5dfd041bafJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-052f-9000000000-e2acd59c62ae4caefc56JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-0884cf76c54fac458024JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-b9a2ab16adfdd94ece2aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-c9c9e98957d1fde0dce7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-214c4efe96ae363515d5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HP 5970) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-858b1e62ef5dfd041bafJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-e2acd59c62ae4caefc56JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0ue9-8900000000-7f95c62c199ac18bb617JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0f8c-9300000000-86d93f8a23031d700516JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-52c2a4eb34b81253f5b0JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-e69f92c1ea30b1c8b758JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-9000000000-b2aac1a98aa5c3d5501eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a5c-9000000000-a65bc7e7cdfb70bec9dbJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-052f-9000000000-f15df0bf9af914ce3f16JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (7); inhalation (7) ;dermal (7)
Mechanism of Toxicity2-Hexanone's toxicity is believed to be caused by covalent binding of its metabolites, especially 2,5-hexanedione, with axonal components of nerve tissue and inhibition of enzymes associated with the production of energy in this tissue. 2-Hexanone and 2,5-hexanedione may also inhibit sulfhydryl-dependent enzymes such as fructose-6-phosphate kinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as certain creatine kinases and adenylate kinases, impairing energy metabolism and subsequently resulting in axon deterioration. In addition, 2,5-hexanedione can covalently cross-links neurofilaments, causing large axonal swellings. (7, 1, 2)
Metabolism2-Hexanone is absorbed via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal routes, then distributed widely throughout the body, with the highest levels in the liver and blood. Metabolism is likely similar to that of other aliphatic ketones, proceeding via reduction to the corresponding secondary alcohol, 2-hexanol. An alternate pathway is oxidation to the corresponding alcohol, 5-hydroxy-2-hexanone, followed by further oxidation to the diketone 2,5-hexanedione. 2-Hexanone and its metabolites are excreted via exhalation or in the urine. (7)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 2590 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (6) LD50: 4800 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/Sources2-Hexanone was used in the past in paint and paint thinner, to make other chemical substances, and to dissolve oils and waxes. Today it is formed as a waste product resulting from industrial activities such as wood pulping, coal gasification, and oil shale operations. (7)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsBreathing 2-hexanone affects the nervous and reproductive systems. This may include pathologies such as peripheral neuropathy and developmental defects. (7)
SymptomsChronic 2-hexanone exposure causes weakness, numbness, tingling in the skin of the hands and feet, irritation to the lungs, and narcosis. (7)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB05842
PubChem Compound ID11583
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL195861
ChemSpider ID11095
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID421633
BioCyc ID2K-ADIPATE
CTD IDD008742
Stitch ID2-Hexanone
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID1960
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Couri D, Milks M: Toxicity and metabolism of the neurotoxic hexacarbons n-hexane, 2-hexanone, and 2,5-hexanedione. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1982;22:145-66. [7044283 ]
  2. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
  3. Zlatkis A, Liebich HM: Profile of volatile metabolites in human urine. Clin Chem. 1971 Jul;17(7):592-4. [5556886 ]
  4. Griffin JW: Hexacarbon neurotoxicity. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol. 1981 Winter;3(4):437-44. [6278344 ]
  5. Lolin Y: Chronic neurological toxicity associated with exposure to volatile substances. Hum Toxicol. 1989 Jul;8(4):293-300. [2550357 ]
  6. Lewis RJ Sr. (ed) (2004). Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 11th Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience, Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  7. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992). Toxicological profile for 2-hexanone. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Protein complex binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by ATP, the first committing step of glycolysis.
Gene Name:
PFKP
Uniprot ID:
Q01813
Molecular Weight:
85595.405 Da
References
  1. Couri D, Milks M: Toxicity and metabolism of the neurotoxic hexacarbons n-hexane, 2-hexanone, and 2,5-hexanedione. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1982;22:145-66. [7044283 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by ATP, the first committing step of glycolysis.
Gene Name:
PFKL
Uniprot ID:
P17858
Molecular Weight:
85017.825 Da
References
  1. Couri D, Milks M: Toxicity and metabolism of the neurotoxic hexacarbons n-hexane, 2-hexanone, and 2,5-hexanedione. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1982;22:145-66. [7044283 ]
General Function:
Protein c-terminus binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by ATP, the first committing step of glycolysis.
Gene Name:
PFKM
Uniprot ID:
P08237
Molecular Weight:
85181.925 Da
References
  1. Couri D, Milks M: Toxicity and metabolism of the neurotoxic hexacarbons n-hexane, 2-hexanone, and 2,5-hexanedione. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1982;22:145-66. [7044283 ]
General Function:
Atp binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. Plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis and in adenine nucleotide metabolism. Adenylate kinase activity is critical for regulation of the phosphate utilization and the AMP de novo biosynthesis pathways. Plays a key role in hematopoiesis.
Gene Name:
AK2
Uniprot ID:
P54819
Molecular Weight:
26477.44 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Nucleoside triphosphate adenylate kinase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in maintaining the homeostasis of cellular nucleotides by catalyzing the interconversion of nucleoside phosphates. Efficiently phosphorylates AMP and dAMP using ATP as phosphate donor, but phosphorylates only AMP when using GTP as phosphate donor. Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.
Gene Name:
AK4
Uniprot ID:
P27144
Molecular Weight:
25267.83 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific Function:
Nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase that catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between nucleoside triphosphates and monophosphates. Has highest activity toward AMP, and weaker activity toward dAMP, CMP and dCMP. Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity. Involved in maintaining ciliary structure and function.
Gene Name:
AK7
Uniprot ID:
Q96M32
Molecular Weight:
82657.68 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity. Plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis and in adenine nucleotide metabolism.
Gene Name:
AK1
Uniprot ID:
P00568
Molecular Weight:
21634.725 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific Function:
Nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase that catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between nucleoside triphosphates and monophosphates. Active on AMP and dAMP with ATP as a donor. When GTP is used as phosphate donor, the enzyme phosphorylates AMP, CMP, and to a small extent dCMP. Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity.
Gene Name:
AK5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6K8
Molecular Weight:
63332.385 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Atpase activity
Specific Function:
Broad-specificity nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase that catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between nucleoside triphosphates and monophosphates. AMP and dAMP are the preferred substrates, but CMP and dCMP are also good substrates. IMP is phosphorylated to a much lesser extent. All nucleoside triphosphates ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP, dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and TTP are accepted as phosphate donors. CTP is the best phosphate donor, followed by UTP, ATP, GTP and dCTP. May have a role in nuclear energy homeostasis. Has also ATPase activity. May be involved in regulation of Cajal body (CB) formation.
Gene Name:
AK6
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y3D8
Molecular Weight:
20061.315 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKB
Uniprot ID:
P12277
Molecular Weight:
42643.95 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKM
Uniprot ID:
P06732
Molecular Weight:
43100.91 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKMT2
Uniprot ID:
P17540
Molecular Weight:
47504.08 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with large, fluctuating energy demands, such as skeletal muscle, heart, brain and spermatozoa.
Gene Name:
CKMT1A
Uniprot ID:
P12532
Molecular Weight:
47036.3 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Nucleoside triphosphate adenylate kinase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in maintaining the homeostasis of cellular nucleotides by catalyzing the interconversion of nucleoside phosphates. Has GTP:AMP phosphotransferase and ITP:AMP phosphotransferase activities.
Gene Name:
AK3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIJ7
Molecular Weight:
25565.2 Da
References
  1. Graham DG: Neurotoxicants and the cytoskeleton. Curr Opin Neurol. 1999 Dec;12(6):733-7. [10676757 ]
General Function:
Peptidyl-cysteine s-nitrosylase activity
Specific Function:
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation.
Gene Name:
GAPDH
Uniprot ID:
P04406
Molecular Weight:
36053.0 Da
References
  1. Couri D, Milks M: Toxicity and metabolism of the neurotoxic hexacarbons n-hexane, 2-hexanone, and 2,5-hexanedione. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1982;22:145-66. [7044283 ]
General Function:
Nadp binding
Specific Function:
May play an important role in regulating the switch between different pathways for energy production during spermiogenesis and in the spermatozoon. Required for sperm motility and male fertility (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GAPDHS
Uniprot ID:
O14556
Molecular Weight:
44500.835 Da
References
  1. Couri D, Milks M: Toxicity and metabolism of the neurotoxic hexacarbons n-hexane, 2-hexanone, and 2,5-hexanedione. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1982;22:145-66. [7044283 ]