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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-15 20:47:26 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:49 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2676
Identification
Common NameMethadone
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionA synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of morphine. It also has a depressant action on the cough center and may be given to control intractable cough associated with terminal lung cancer. Methadone is also used as part of the treatment of dependence on opioid drugs, although prolonged use of methadone itself may result in dependence. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3). In Australia methadone is a Schedule 8 (controlled) drug.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Analgesic
  • Analgesic, Opioid
  • Antitussive Agent
  • Drug
  • Metabolite
  • Narcotic
  • Opiate Agonist
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+-)-Methadone
(+/-)-Methadone
(+/-)-Methadone hydrochloride
(±)-methadone
6-Dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanone
Adolan
Depridol
DISKETS
Dl-Methadone
DL-Methadone hydrochloride
Dolophine
Heptadon
Heptanon
Ketalgin
Mephenon
Methadon
Methadone HCL
Methadone hydrochloride
Methadonum
METHADOSE
Phenadone hydrochloride
Physeptone
Polamidon
Chemical FormulaC21H27NO
Average Molecular Mass309.445 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass309.209 g/mol
CAS Registry Number76-99-3
IUPAC Name6-(dimethylamino)-4,4-diphenylheptan-3-one
Traditional Namemethadone
SMILESCCC(=O)C(CC(C)N(C)C)(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C21H27NO/c1-5-20(23)21(16-17(2)22(3)4,18-12-8-6-9-13-18)19-14-10-7-11-15-19/h6-15,17H,5,16H2,1-4H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=USSIQXCVUWKGNF-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as diphenylmethanes. Diphenylmethanes are compounds containing a diphenylmethane moiety, which consists of a methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassDiphenylmethanes
Direct ParentDiphenylmethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Gamma-aminoketone
  • Ketone
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceCrystalline powder (MSDS A308)
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point235.0°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility5.90e-03 g/L
LogP3.93
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0059 g/LALOGPS
logP4.14ALOGPS
logP5.01ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.12ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.31 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity97.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability36.29 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9310000000-d71659ee33e210178a79JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-0009000000-c583dd769bf5998ac160JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9310000000-d71659ee33e210178a79JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-03di-0009000000-c583dd769bf5998ac160JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0uk9-9080000000-1cd26d01442b30c05512JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-03di-0029000000-43d5c8da88c1aa260682JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-31b8655a24b30962bd8cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-01b9-0590000000-9894da52e88d32034318JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-0940000000-fedb75bd4c80c6c4fea9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0gb9-0940000000-a27b5f75aab7fac8931dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-1d4283f6dffa11b765e7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0019000000-416fca50b212d00b968cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-ad95925610aed55afe91JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0aor-1980000000-6d4d0adc4c8db177eaadJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-1920000000-0548504791642aa3b2e0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-2920000000-dd2ce03c02a54aa24f83JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-3910000000-1af5f56241eabde05700JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-03di-0019000000-015df6e52b9d5ebe5cb2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0091000000-b328f3740a7ca4485324JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0aor-0980000000-24074e0b5c722d7279c0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-1920000000-5477eb89abafab290dd1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-2920000000-b4ffdf7888e464422c0cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4i-3910000000-6053da2e4586dbcae300JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-014i-0090000000-0863c3130ca5df5f25b6JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0069000000-144e893c575a6cb0ceb3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0229-8093000000-72ef33a6770239211ec3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0aw9-9780000000-930cd0f8dcbecbc72f1bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0019000000-3418a56694229e2c6595JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-3069000000-10bb89e35854fe0680a5JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00fu-9180000000-abf68f949ff2ecf35fccJSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00di-9210000000-7542d8c3f742c7713c13JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureInhalation (MSDS, RxList, A308); dermal (MSDS, RxList, A308); ingestion (MSDS, RxList, A308); intravenous injection (MSDS, RxList, A308). Well absorbed following oral administration. The bioavailability of methadone ranges between 36 to 100%.
Mechanism of ToxicityMethadone is a mu-agonist; a synthetic opioid analgesic with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of morphine, the most prominent of which involves the central nervous system and organs composed of smooth muscle. The principal therapeutic uses for methadone are for analgesia and for detoxification or maintenance in opioid addiction. The methadone abstinence syndrome, although qualitatively similar to that of morphine, differs in that the onset is slower, the course is more prolonged, and the symptoms are less severe. Some data also indicate that methadone acts as an antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The contribution of NMDA receptor antagonism to methadone's efficacy is unknown. Other NMDA receptor antagonists have been shown to produce neurotoxic effects in animals.
MetabolismHepatic. Cytochrome P450 enzymes, primarily CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 and to a lesser extent CYP2C9 and CYP2D6, are responsible for conversion of methadone to EDDP and other inactive metabolites, which are excreted mainly in the urine. Route of Elimination: The elimination of methadone is mediated by extensive biotransformation, followed by renal and fecal excretion. Unmetabolized methadone and its metabolites are excreted in urine to a variable degree. Half Life: 24-36 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of dry cough, drug withdrawal syndrome, opioid type drug dependence, and pain (1).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsBradycardia and hypotension. In severe overdosage, particularly by the intravenous route, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest, and death may occur (RxList, A308). Medical problems can include congested lungs, liver disease, tetanus, infection of the heart valves, skin abscesses, anemia and pneumonia. Death can occur from overdose.
SymptomsIn severe overdosage, particularly by the intravenous route, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest, and death may occur.
TreatmentPrimary attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. If a non-tolerant person, takes a large dose of methadone, effective opioid antagonists are available to counteract the potentially lethal respiratory depression. (11)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00333
HMDB IDHMDB14477
PubChem Compound ID4095
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL651
ChemSpider ID3953
KEGG IDC07163
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID6807
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDMethadone
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMethadone
References
Synthesis Reference

Charles J. Barnett, “Modification of methadone synthesis process step.” U.S. Patent US4048211, issued August, 1952.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  2. Kell MJ: Utilization of plasma and urine methadone concentrations to optimize treatment in maintenance clinics: I. Measurement techniques for a clinical setting. J Addict Dis. 1994;13(1):5-26. [8018740 ]
  3. Eap CB, Buclin T, Baumann P: Interindividual variability of the clinical pharmacokinetics of methadone: implications for the treatment of opioid dependence. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(14):1153-93. [12405865 ]
  4. Joseph H, Stancliff S, Langrod J: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): a review of historical and clinical issues. Mt Sinai J Med. 2000 Oct-Nov;67(5-6):347-64. [11064485 ]
  5. Connock M, Juarez-Garcia A, Jowett S, Frew E, Liu Z, Taylor RJ, Fry-Smith A, Day E, Lintzeris N, Roberts T, Burls A, Taylor RS: Methadone and buprenorphine for the management of opioid dependence: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2007 Mar;11(9):1-171, iii-iv. [17313907 ]
  6. Donny EC, Brasser SM, Bigelow GE, Stitzer ML, Walsh SL: Methadone doses of 100 mg or greater are more effective than lower doses at suppressing heroin self-administration in opioid-dependent volunteers. Addiction. 2005 Oct;100(10):1496-509. [16185211 ]
  7. Dayer P, Desmeules J, Collart L: [Pharmacology of tramadol]. Drugs. 1997;53 Suppl 2:18-24. [9190321 ]
  8. Leander JD, Wood CR: Metkephamid effects on operant behavior. Peptides. 1982 Sep-Oct;3(5):771-3. [7177922 ]
  9. Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3
  10. Drugs.com [Link]
  11. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociation of the G-protein complex with the free GTP-bound G-protein alpha and the G-protein beta-gamma dimer activating downstream cellular effectors. The agonist- and cell type-specific activity is predominantly coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i) and G(o) G alpha proteins, GNAI1, GNAI2, GNAI3 and GNAO1 isoforms Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, and to a lesser extend to pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha proteins GNAZ and GNA15. They mediate an array of downstream cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and both N-type and L-type calcium channels, activation of inward rectifying potassium channels, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C (PLC), phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and regulation of NF-kappa-B. Also couples to adenylate cyclase stimulatory G alpha proteins. The selective temporal coupling to G-proteins and subsequent signaling can be regulated by RGSZ proteins, such as RGS9, RGS17 and RGS4. Phosphorylation by members of the GPRK subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases and association with beta-arrestins is involved in short-term receptor desensitization. Beta-arrestins associate with the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and uncouple it from the G-protein thus terminating signal transduction. The phosphorylated receptor is internalized through endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits which involves beta-arrestins. The activation of the ERK pathway occurs either in a G-protein-dependent or a beta-arrestin-dependent manner and is regulated by agonist-specific receptor phosphorylation. Acts as a class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which dissociates from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergoes rapid recycling. Receptor down-regulation pathways are varying with the agonist and occur dependent or independent of G-protein coupling. Endogenous ligands induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis and recycling whereas morphine induces only low desensitization and endocytosis. Heterooligomerization with other GPCRs can modulate agonist binding, signaling and trafficking properties. Involved in neurogenesis. Isoform 12 couples to GNAS and is proposed to be involved in excitatory effects. Isoform 16 and isoform 17 do not bind agonists but may act through oligomerization with binding-competent OPRM1 isoforms and reduce their ligand binding activity.
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC500.0041 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50027393
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Shi J, Hui L, Xu Y, Wang F, Huang W, Hu G: Sequence variations in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) associated with human addiction to heroin. Hum Mutat. 2002 Apr;19(4):459-60. [11933204 ]
  4. Kakko J, von Wachenfeldt J, Svanborg KD, Lidstrom J, Barr CS, Heilig M: Mood and neuroendocrine response to a chemical stressor, metyrapone, in buprenorphine-maintained heroin dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jan 15;63(2):172-7. Epub 2007 Sep 11. [17850768 ]
  5. Kvam TM, Baar C, Rakvag TT, Kaasa S, Krokan HE, Skorpen F: Genetic analysis of the murine mu opioid receptor: increased complexity of Oprm gene splicing. J Mol Med (Berl). 2004 Apr;82(4):250-5. Epub 2004 Jan 9. [14991152 ]
  6. Poulain R, Horvath D, Bonnet B, Eckhoff C, Chapelain B, Bodinier MC, Deprez B: From hit to lead. Combining two complementary methods for focused library design. Application to mu opiate ligands. J Med Chem. 2001 Oct 11;44(21):3378-90. [11585443 ]
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in mediating reduced physical activity upon treatment with synthetic opioids. Plays a role in the regulation of salivation in response to synthetic opioids. May play a role in arousal and regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine functions.
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0158 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50027393
Inhibitory1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50027393
IC500.512 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50027393
References
  1. Poulain R, Horvath D, Bonnet B, Eckhoff C, Chapelain B, Bodinier MC, Deprez B: From hit to lead. Combining two complementary methods for focused library design. Application to mu opiate ligands. J Med Chem. 2001 Oct 11;44(21):3378-90. [11585443 ]
  2. Standifer KM, Cheng J, Brooks AI, Honrado CP, Su W, Visconti LM, Biedler JL, Pasternak GW: Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of mu, delta and kappa 3 opioid receptors expressed in BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Sep;270(3):1246-55. [7932177 ]
  3. Raynor K, Kong H, Chen Y, Yasuda K, Yu L, Bell GI, Reisine T: Pharmacological characterization of the cloned kappa-, delta-, and mu-opioid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Feb;45(2):330-4. [8114680 ]
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain and in opiate-mediated analgesia. Plays a role in developing analgesic tolerance to morphine.
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50027393
References
  1. Gross ER, Hsu AK, Gross GJ: Acute methadone treatment reduces myocardial infarct size via the delta-opioid receptor in rats during reperfusion. Anesth Analg. 2009 Nov;109(5):1395-402. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181b92201. [19843777 ]
  2. Raynor K, Kong H, Chen Y, Yasuda K, Yu L, Bell GI, Reisine T: Pharmacological characterization of the cloned kappa-, delta-, and mu-opioid receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 1994 Feb;45(2):330-4. [8114680 ]
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma.
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular Weight:
49704.295 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular Weight:
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Deeb TZ, Sharp D, Hales TG: Direct subunit-dependent multimodal 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonism by methadone. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;75(4):908-17. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.053322. Epub 2009 Jan 8. [19131665 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various hydrophobic ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
Gene Name:
ORM2
Uniprot ID:
P19652
Molecular Weight:
23602.43 Da
References
  1. Herve F, Duche JC, d'Athis P, Marche C, Barre J, Tillement JP: Binding of disopyramide, methadone, dipyridamole, chlorpromazine, lignocaine and progesterone to the two main genetic variants of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for drug-binding differences between the variants and for the presence of two separate drug-binding sites on alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):403-15. [8946472 ]
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC507.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50027393
References
  1. Stormer E, Perloff MD, von Moltke LL, Greenblatt DJ: Methadone inhibits rhodamine123 transport in Caco-2 cells. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Jul;29(7):954-6. [11408360 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Channel properties are modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates the rapidly activating component of the delayed rectifying potassium current in heart (IKr). Isoforms USO have no channel activity by themself, but modulates channel characteristics by forming heterotetramers with other isoforms which are retained intracellularly and undergo ubiquitin-dependent degradation.
Gene Name:
KCNH2
Uniprot ID:
Q12809
Molecular Weight:
126653.52 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC509.77237 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50027393
References
  1. Tobita M, Nishikawa T, Nagashima R: A discriminant model constructed by the support vector machine method for HERG potassium channel inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Jun 2;15(11):2886-90. [15911273 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response (PubMed:9237759, PubMed:10835634). Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific (PubMed:20711192). In complex with TLR6, promotes sterile inflammation in monocytes/macrophages in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or amyloid-beta 42. In this context, the initial signal is provided by oxLDL- or amyloid-beta 42-binding to CD36. This event induces the formation of a heterodimer of TLR4 and TLR6, which is rapidly internalized and triggers inflammatory response, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine, via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion. Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-) (PubMed:23880187).
Gene Name:
TLR4
Uniprot ID:
O00206
Molecular Weight:
95679.19 Da
References
  1. Hutchinson MR, Lewis SS, Coats BD, Rezvani N, Zhang Y, Wieseler JL, Somogyi AA, Yin H, Maier SF, Rice KC, Watkins LR: Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal proinflammation and related behavioral consequences. Neuroscience. 2010 May 19;167(3):880-93. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.02.011. Epub 2010 Feb 21. [20178837 ]