Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:10 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:49 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2698
Identification
Common NameFolic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionFolic acid is a member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (poaceae). Folic acid, being biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylated tRNA, and generate and use formate. Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Hematinic
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
  • Supplement
  • Vitamin B Complex
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Acfol
Acifolic
Cytofol
Dosfolat B activ
Fefol
Folacid
Folacin
Folate
Folbal
Folcidin
Foldine
Folettes
Foliamin
Folicet
Folipac
Folsaeure
Folsan
Folsaure
Folsav
Folvite
Incafolic
Liver Lactobacillus casei factor
Millafol
N-(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid
N-Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
N-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
N-[4-[[(2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid
PGA
PteGlu
Pteroyl-L-glutamate
Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
Pteroyl-L-monoglutamate
Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid
Pteroylglutamate
Pteroylglutamic acid
Pteroylmonoglutamic acid
Vitamin B9
Vitamin Bc
Vitamin Be
Vitamin M
Chemical FormulaC19H19N7O6
Average Molecular Mass441.398 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass441.140 g/mol
CAS Registry Number59-30-3
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
Traditional Namefolate
SMILES[H][C@@](CCC(O)=O)(NC(=O)C1=CC=C(NCC2=NC3=C(NC(=N)N=C3O)N=C2)C=C1)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C19H19N7O6/c20-19-25-15-14(17(30)26-19)23-11(8-22-15)7-21-10-3-1-9(2-4-10)16(29)24-12(18(31)32)5-6-13(27)28/h1-4,8,12,21H,5-7H2,(H,24,29)(H,27,28)(H,31,32)(H3,20,22,25,26,30)/t12-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=OVBPIULPVIDEAO-LBPRGKRZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glutamic acid and derivatives. Glutamic acid and derivatives are compounds containing glutamic acid or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of glutamic acid at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentGlutamic acid and derivatives
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Folate MetabolismSMP00053 map00670
Pterine BiosynthesisSMP00005 map00790
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point250 dec°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.6 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP-2.5
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.076 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.04ALOGPS
logP-0.68ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area208.99 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.01 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability42.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0002-2249100000-5ad16461f6638538ea08View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-4205390000-4152e24c68306bfe6554View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0000900000-4208ea3c2f5d9026c19fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0050900000-2c8ad037dc3b270765c4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0007-0090300000-ebdec84cbb7fe5afbc0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-002b-0960000000-108d96993dc78f1e4b61View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-002b-0960000000-108d96993dc78f1e4b61View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00bd-0544900000-aa9a130e2cf3dacfb954View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004j-0954100000-7be7eac442233b5d3bcfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004i-1960000000-1950169762886f41b6ecView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0114900000-bff7f5f3d20dcd6a4494View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00r7-1249300000-e322ba8675bb922877a9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9652000000-8c87fa7172ed19a7eb27View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9410000000-7cba521e870757539424View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureIntravenous, Oral
Mechanism of ToxicityFolic acid, as it is biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, and generate and use formate. Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.
MetabolismHepatic Route of Elimination: Folic Acid is metabolized in the liver to 7, 8-dihydrofolic acid and eventually to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid with the aid of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPNH) and folate reductases. A majority of the metabolic products appeared in the urine after 6 hours; excretion was generally complete within 24 hours. Folic Acid is also excreted in the milk of lactating mothers.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 85 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (6) LD50: 120 mg/kg (Intravenous, Guinea pig) (6) LD50: 239 mg/kg (Intravenous Mouse) (6) LD50: 500 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rat) (6) LD50: 410 mg/kg (Intravenous, Rabbit) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor treatment of folic acid deficiency, megaloblastic anemia and in anemias of nutritional supplements, pregnancy, infancy, or childhood.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00158
HMDB IDHMDB00121
PubChem Compound ID6037
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1622
ChemSpider ID5815
KEGG IDC00504
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID136610 , 136630 , 229050 , 229100 , 236200 , 236250 , 309548 , 601634 , 601775 , 603174 , 608866
ChEBI ID27470
BioCyc IDFOLATE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDFolic Acid
PDB IDFOL
ACToR ID2649
Wikipedia LinkFolic_Acid
References
Synthesis Reference

Carroll G. Temple, Jr., Robert D. Elliott, Jerry D. Rose, John A. Montgomery, “Preparation of tetrahydrofolic acid from folic acid.” U.S. Patent US4206307, issued April, 1956.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Kamen B: Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. [9420019 ]
  2. Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. [9683174 ]
  3. Zittoun J: [Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism]. Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 1;43(11):1358-63. [8235383 ]
  4. Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL: Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data. 1994 Nov 14;(258):1-28. [10138938 ]
  5. Raiten DJ, Fisher KD: Assessment of folate methodology used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). J Nutr. 1995 May;125(5):1371S-1398S. [7738698 ]
  6. Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M: DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008 Jan;36(Database issue):D901-6. Epub 2007 Nov 29. [18048412 ]
  7. Kopczynska E, Ziolkowski M, Jendryczka-Mackiewicz E, Odrowaz-Sypniewska G, Opozda K, Tyrakowski T: [The concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in alcohol dependent male patients]. Psychiatr Pol. 2004 Sep-Oct;38(5):947-56. [15523939 ]
  8. Gregory JF 3rd, Williamson J, Liao JF, Bailey LB, Toth JP: Kinetic model of folate metabolism in nonpregnant women consuming [2H2]folic acid: isotopic labeling of urinary folate and the catabolite para-acetamidobenzoylglutamate indicates slow, intake-dependent, turnover of folate pools. J Nutr. 1998 Nov;128(11):1896-906. [9808640 ]
  9. Lin Y, Dueker SR, Follett JR, Fadel JG, Arjomand A, Schneider PD, Miller JW, Green R, Buchholz BA, Vogel JS, Phair RD, Clifford AJ: Quantitation of in vivo human folate metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):680-91. [15321809 ]
  10. Rodriguez Flores J, Penalvo GC, Mansilla AE, Gomez MJ: Capillary electrophoretic determination of methotrexate, leucovorin and folic acid in human urine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 May 5;819(1):141-7. [15797531 ]
  11. Selley ML, Close DR, Stern SE: The effect of increased concentrations of homocysteine on the concentration of (E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 May-Jun;23(3):383-8. [11959400 ]
  12. Litwin M, Abuauba M, Wawer ZT, Grenda R, Kuryl T, Pietraszek E: [Sulphur amino acids, vitamin B12 and folic acid in children with chronic renal failure]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2000 Apr;8(46):268-9. [10897644 ]
  13. Gregory JF 3rd, Williamson J, Bailey LB, Toth JP: Urinary excretion of [2H4]folate by nonpregnant women following a single oral dose of [2H4]folic acid is a functional index of folate nutritional status. J Nutr. 1998 Nov;128(11):1907-12. [9808641 ]
  14. Dietrich M, Brown CJ, Block G: The effect of folate fortification of cereal-grain products on blood folate status, dietary folate intake, and dietary folate sources among adult non-supplement users in the United States. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Aug;24(4):266-74. [16093404 ]
  15. Pufulete M, Al-Ghnaniem R, Khushal A, Appleby P, Harris N, Gout S, Emery PW, Sanders TA: Effect of folic acid supplementation on genomic DNA methylation in patients with colorectal adenoma. Gut. 2005 May;54(5):648-53. [15831910 ]
  16. Clifford AJ, Arjomand A, Dueker SR, Schneider PD, Buchholz BA, Vogel JS: The dynamics of folic acid metabolism in an adult given a small tracer dose of 14C-folic acid. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;445:239-51. [9781393 ]
  17. Olthof MR, Bots ML, Katan MB, Verhoef P: Effect of folic acid and betaine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation: a randomized, controlled study in healthy volunteers. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006 Jun;1(2):e10. Epub 2006 Jun 9. [16871332 ]
  18. Stern LL, Bagley PJ, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J: Conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid to 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid is unimpaired in folate-adequate persons homozygous for the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2238-42. [10958818 ]
  19. Stuerenburg HJ, Ganzer S, Arlt S, Muller-Thomsen T: The influence of smoking on plasma folate and lipoproteins in Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment and depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Jun;26(3):261-3. [15990733 ]
  20. Cahill E, McPartlin J, Gibney MJ: The effects of fasting and refeeding healthy volunteers on serum folate levels. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(2):142-5. [9565830 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Folic acid binding
Specific Function:
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. Isoform Short does not bind folate.
Gene Name:
FOLR3
Uniprot ID:
P41439
Molecular Weight:
27638.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Shen F, Ross JF, Wang X, Ratnam M: Identification of a novel folate receptor, a truncated receptor, and receptor type beta in hematopoietic cells: cDNA cloning, expression, immunoreactivity, and tissue specificity. Biochemistry. 1994 Feb 8;33(5):1209-15. [8110752 ]
  4. Shen F, Wu M, Ross JF, Miller D, Ratnam M: Folate receptor type gamma is primarily a secretory protein due to lack of an efficient signal for glycosylphosphatidylinositol modification: protein characterization and cell type specificity. Biochemistry. 1995 Apr 25;34(16):5660-5. [7727426 ]
  5. Prasad PD, Ramamoorthy S, Moe AJ, Smith CH, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Selective expression of the high-affinity isoform of the folate receptor (FR-alpha) in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast and choriocarcinoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 11;1223(1):71-5. [8061055 ]
General Function:
Methotrexate binding
Specific Function:
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folate analogs into the interior of cells. Has high affinity for folate and folic acid analogs at neutral pH. Exposure to slightly acidic pH after receptor endocytosis triggers a conformation change that strongly reduces its affinity for folates and mediates their release.
Gene Name:
FOLR2
Uniprot ID:
P14207
Molecular Weight:
29279.31 Da
References
  1. Dixit V, Van den Bossche J, Sherman DM, Thompson DH, Andres RP: Synthesis and grafting of thioctic acid-PEG-folate conjugates onto Au nanoparticles for selective targeting of folate receptor-positive tumor cells. Bioconjug Chem. 2006 May-Jun;17(3):603-9. [16704197 ]
  2. Wlodarczyk BJ, Cabrera RM, Hill DS, Bozinov D, Zhu H, Finnell RH: Arsenic-induced gene expression changes in the neural tube of folate transport defective mouse embryos. Neurotoxicology. 2006 Jul;27(4):547-57. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [16620997 ]
  3. Boyles AL, Billups AV, Deak KL, Siegel DG, Mehltretter L, Slifer SH, Bassuk AG, Kessler JA, Reed MC, Nijhout HF, George TM, Enterline DS, Gilbert JR, Speer MC: Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1547-52. [17035141 ]
  4. Wang L, Desmoulin SK, Cherian C, Polin L, White K, Kushner J, Fulterer A, Chang MH, Mitchell-Ryan S, Stout M, Romero MF, Hou Z, Matherly LH, Gangjee A: Synthesis, biological, and antitumor activity of a highly potent 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitor with proton-coupled folate transporter and folate receptor selectivity over the reduced folate carrier that inhibits beta-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2011 Oct 27;54(20):7150-64. doi: 10.1021/jm200739e. Epub 2011 Sep 22. [21879757 ]
General Function:
Omega peptidase activity
Specific Function:
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.
Gene Name:
GGH
Uniprot ID:
Q92820
Molecular Weight:
35964.045 Da
References
  1. Schneider E, Ryan TJ: Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and drug resistance. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Dec;374(1-2):25-32. Epub 2006 Jun 10. [16859665 ]
  2. Eisele LE, Chave KJ, Lehning AC, Ryan TJ: Characterization of Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Sep;1764(9):1479-86. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [16945597 ]
  3. Chen L, Eitenmiller RR: Optimization of the trienzyme extraction for the microbiological assay of folate in vegetables. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 May 16;55(10):3884-8. Epub 2007 Apr 17. [17439143 ]
General Function:
Folic acid transporter activity
Specific Function:
Transports folate across the inner membranes of mitochondria.
Gene Name:
SLC25A32
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2D1
Molecular Weight:
35406.83 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Methotrexate transporter activity
Specific Function:
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton-coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithelial cells. The iron is then released from heme and may be transported into the bloodstream. Dietary heme iron is an important nutritional source of iron. Shows a higher affinity for folate than heme.
Gene Name:
SLC46A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96NT5
Molecular Weight:
49770.04 Da
References
  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. [17475902 ]
  2. Ashokkumar B, Mohammed ZM, Vaziri ND, Said HM: Effect of folate oversupplementation on folate uptake by human intestinal and renal epithelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):159-66. [17616776 ]
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in folate metabolism. Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway. Catalyzes an essential reaction for de novo glycine and purine synthesis, and for DNA precursor synthesis. Binds its own mRNA and that of DHFRL1.
Gene Name:
DHFR
Uniprot ID:
P00374
Molecular Weight:
21452.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Dissociation0.81 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50367343
Dissociation4.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50367343
Dissociation4.8 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50367343
References
  1. Taira K, Benkovic SJ: Evaluation of the importance of hydrophobic interactions in drug binding to dihydrofolate reductase. J Med Chem. 1988 Jan;31(1):129-37. [3275776 ]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
Binds to folate and reduced folic acid derivatives and mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and folate analogs into the interior of cells. Has high affinity for folate and folic acid analogs at neutral pH. Exposure to slightly acidic pH after receptor endocytosis triggers a conformation change that strongly reduces its affinity for folates and mediates their release. Required for normal embryonic development and normal cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
FOLR1
Uniprot ID:
P15328
Molecular Weight:
29818.94 Da
References
  1. Wang L, Desmoulin SK, Cherian C, Polin L, White K, Kushner J, Fulterer A, Chang MH, Mitchell-Ryan S, Stout M, Romero MF, Hou Z, Matherly LH, Gangjee A: Synthesis, biological, and antitumor activity of a highly potent 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitor with proton-coupled folate transporter and folate receptor selectivity over the reduced folate carrier that inhibits beta-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2011 Oct 27;54(20):7150-64. doi: 10.1021/jm200739e. Epub 2011 Sep 22. [21879757 ]
General Function:
Thymidylate synthase activity
Specific Function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.
Gene Name:
TYMS
Uniprot ID:
P04818
Molecular Weight:
35715.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory40 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50367343
IC50290 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50367343
References
  1. Brixner DI, Ueda T, Cheng YC, Hynes JB, Broom AD: Folate analogues as inhibitors of thymidylate synthase. J Med Chem. 1987 Apr;30(4):675-8. [3470522 ]