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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:26:53 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:51 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2790
Identification
Common NameCyproheptadine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCyproheptadine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc. Cyproheptadine competes with free histamine for binding at HA-receptor sites. This antagonizes the effects of histamine on HA-receptors, leading to a reduction of the negative symptoms brought on by histamine HA-receptor binding. Cyproheptadine also competes with serotonin at receptor sites in smooth muscle in the intestines and other locations. Antagonism of serotonin on the appetite center of the hypothalamus may account for Cyproheptadine's ability to stimulate appetite.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Anti-Allergic Agent
  • Antihistamine Derivative
  • Antipruritic
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Gastrointestinal Agent
  • Histamine H1 Antagonist
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Serotonin Antagonist
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1-methyl-4-(5-dibenzo(a,e)cycloheptatrienylidene)piperidine
1-Methyl-4-(5H-dibenzo(a,d)cycloheptenylidene)piperidine
4-(5-Dibenzo(a,D)cyclohepten-5-ylidine)-1-methylpiperidine
4-(5H-Dibenzo(a,D)cyclohepten-5-ylidene)-1-methylpiperidine
4-Dibenzo[a,D]cyclohepten-5-ylidene-1-methyl-piperidine
5-(1-methylpiperidylidene-4)-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclopheptene
Apeplus
Apitup
Axoprol
Biohept
Ciplactin
Cipractine
Ciproheptadina
Ciprovit
Ciptadine
Cyheptine
Cyllermin
Cyproheptadin
Cyproheptadinum
Dihexazin
Glutodina
Periactin
Periactine
Periatin
Reactin
Chemical FormulaC21H21N
Average Molecular Mass287.398 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass287.167 g/mol
CAS Registry Number129-03-3
IUPAC Name1-methyl-4-{tricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(15),3,5,7,9,11,13-heptaen-2-ylidene}piperidine
Traditional Nameperiactin
SMILESCN1CCC(CC1)=C1C2=CC=CC=C2C=CC2=CC=CC=C12
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C21H21N/c1-22-14-12-18(13-15-22)21-19-8-4-2-6-16(19)10-11-17-7-3-5-9-20(17)21/h2-11H,12-15H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=JJCFRYNCJDLXIK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzocycloheptenes. Dibenzocycloheptenes are compounds containing a dibenzocycloheptene moiety, which consists of two benzene rings connected by a cycloheptene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassDibenzocycloheptenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentDibenzocycloheptenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzocycloheptene
  • Piperidine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point112.3-113.3°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilitySoluble
LogP4.69
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.014 g/LALOGPS
logP5.02ALOGPS
logP4.38ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area3.24 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity105.17 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability34.17 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05g0-1090000000-7d19fca2a65a93c449d6JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-000i-0290000000-964629904e89d79568d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-000i-0290000000-964629904e89d79568d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Positivesplash10-000m-6790000000-4e9938638118593eb406JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-1090000000-3117ec5d9639f751f7b7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-3290000000-2935111fa6fa07111de6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00r6-9370000000-df84a6a14decead8dedfJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-78685e74ff4bff75d39bJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-cb222eada7f0bf316df6JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-022i-5190000000-4e162fb598e8db9d6e77JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-107477c8d28ce3506c90JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-c2a155a089dd265a5433JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05mo-4190000000-eaa52ca5faae687ab50fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-26c7f893d45bf33544e2JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-2c051f1f630ec47ecb1cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00lr-0090000000-012e0121acf874e7bd11JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00kr-2290000000-a17c27a9f171b058f2c3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureWell absorbed after oral administration.
Mechanism of ToxicityCyproheptadine competes with free histamine for binding at HA-receptor sites. This antagonizes the effects of histamine on HA-receptors, leading to a reduction of the negative symptoms brought on by histamine HA-receptor binding. Cyproheptadine also competes with serotonin at receptor sites in smooth muscle in the intestines and other locations. Antagonism of serotonin on the appetite center of the hypothalamus may account for Cyproheptadine's ability to stimulate appetite.
MetabolismHepatic (cytochrome P-450 system) and some renal. Route of Elimination: After a single 4 mg oral dose of14C-labelled cyproheptadine HCl in normal subjects, given as tablets 2% to 20% of the radioactivity was excreted in the stools. At least 40% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesUsed as an antihistaminic/anticholinergic and antiserotonergic agent. For treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis due to inhalant allergens and foods, mild uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema, amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma, cold urticaria, dermatographism, and as therapy for anaphylactic reactions adjunctive to epinephrine.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsDrowsiness, epigastric distress (dysphagia), nausea, vomiting, (it is noted that these side effects are much more common in people with neuromuscular disorders). [Wikipedia]
TreatmentIf vomiting has not occurred spontaneously the patient should be induced to vomit with syrup of ipecac. If the patient is unable to vomit, perform gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal. Isotonic or 1/2 isotonic saline is the lavage of choice. Precautions against aspiration must be taken especially in infants and children. When life threatening CNS signs and symptoms are present, intravenous physostigmine salicylate may be considered. Dosage and frequency of administration are dependent on age, clinical response, and recurrence after response. (See package circulars for physostigmine products.) Saline cathartics, as milk of magnesia, by osmosis draw water into the bowel and, therefore, are valuable for their action in rapid dilution of bowel content. Stimulants should not be used. Vasopressors may be used to treat hypotension. (3)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00434
HMDB IDHMDB14578
PubChem Compound ID2913
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL516
ChemSpider ID2810
KEGG IDC06935
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID4046
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDCyproheptadine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCyproheptadine
References
Synthesis Reference

Engelhardt, E.L.; U S . Patent 3,014,911; December 26, 1961; assigned to Merck & Co., Inc.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Tokunaga S, Takeda Y, Shinomiya K, Hirase M, Kamei C: Effects of some H1-antagonists on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Feb;103(2):201-6. Epub 2007 Feb 8. [17287588 ]
  2. Drugs.com [Link]
  3. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.00046 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
Inhibitory0.0016 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
Inhibitory0.00288 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
Inhibitory0.003 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Rashid M, Nakazawa M, Nagatomo T: Effects of sarpogrelate, a novel 5-HT2 antagonist, on 5-HT-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Aug;89(4):405-12. [12233819 ]
  2. Honda M, Nishida T, Ono H: Tricyclic analogs cyclobenzaprine, amitriptyline and cyproheptadine inhibit the spinal reflex transmission through 5-HT(2) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 1;458(1-2):91-9. [12498911 ]
  3. Callaway CW, Rempel N, Peng RY, Geyer MA: Serotonin 5-HT1-like receptors mediate hyperactivity in rats induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1992 Sep;7(2):113-27. [1358088 ]
  4. Hoenicke EM, Vanecek SA, Woods JH: The discriminative stimulus effects of clozapine in pigeons: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine1C and 5-hydroxytryptamine2 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Oct;263(1):276-84. [1403790 ]
  5. Calka O, Metin A, Dulger H, Erkoc R: Effect of cyproheptadine on serum leptin levels. Adv Ther. 2005 Sep-Oct;22(5):424-8. [16418149 ]
  6. Bonhaus DW, Weinhardt KK, Taylor M, DeSouza A, McNeeley PM, Szczepanski K, Fontana DJ, Trinh J, Rocha CL, Dawson MW, Flippin LA, Eglen RM: RS-102221: a novel high affinity and selective, 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. Neuropharmacology. 1997 Apr-May;36(4-5):621-9. [9225287 ]
  7. Lin X, Huang XP, Chen G, Whaley R, Peng S, Wang Y, Zhang G, Wang SX, Wang S, Roth BL, Huang N: Life beyond kinases: structure-based discovery of sorafenib as nanomolar antagonist of 5-HT receptors. J Med Chem. 2012 Jun 28;55(12):5749-59. doi: 10.1021/jm300338m. Epub 2012 Jun 19. [22694093 ]
  8. Runyon SP, Savage JE, Taroua M, Roth BL, Glennon RA, Westkaemper RB: Influence of chain length and N-alkylation on the selective serotonin receptor ligand 9-(aminomethyl)-9,10-dihydroanthracene. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Mar 12;11(5):655-8. [11266163 ]
  9. Boess FG, Martin IL: Molecular biology of 5-HT receptors. Neuropharmacology. 1994 Mar-Apr;33(3-4):275-317. [7984267 ]
  10. Peddi S, Roth BL, Glennon RA, Westkaemper RB: Structural determinants for high 5-HT(2A) receptor affinity of spiro[9,10-dihydroanthracene]-9,3(')-pyrrolidine (SpAMDA). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 3;14(9):2279-83. [15081025 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.00223 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
Inhibitory0.011 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Honda M, Nishida T, Ono H: Tricyclic analogs cyclobenzaprine, amitriptyline and cyproheptadine inhibit the spinal reflex transmission through 5-HT(2) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 1;458(1-2):91-9. [12498911 ]
  2. Bonhaus DW, Weinhardt KK, Taylor M, DeSouza A, McNeeley PM, Szczepanski K, Fontana DJ, Trinh J, Rocha CL, Dawson MW, Flippin LA, Eglen RM: RS-102221: a novel high affinity and selective, 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. Neuropharmacology. 1997 Apr-May;36(4-5):621-9. [9225287 ]
  3. Peddi S, Roth BL, Glennon RA, Westkaemper RB: Structural determinants for high 5-HT(2A) receptor affinity of spiro[9,10-dihydroanthracene]-9,3(')-pyrrolidine (SpAMDA). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 3;14(9):2279-83. [15081025 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.00006 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
Dissociation5.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Morphy R, Rankovic Z: Designed multiple ligands. An emerging drug discovery paradigm. J Med Chem. 2005 Oct 20;48(21):6523-43. [16220969 ]
  3. Moguilevsky N, Varsalona F, Noyer M, Gillard M, Guillaume JP, Garcia L, Szpirer C, Szpirer J, Bollen A: Stable expression of human H1-histamine-receptor cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pharmacological characterisation of the protein, tissue distribution of messenger RNA and chromosomal localisation of the gene. Eur J Biochem. 1994 Sep 1;224(2):489-95. [7925364 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. It has a high affinity for tricyclic psychotropic drugs (By similarity). Controls pyramidal neurons migration during corticogenesis, through the regulation of CDK5 activity (By similarity). Is an activator of TOR signaling (PubMed:23027611).
Gene Name:
HTR6
Uniprot ID:
P50406
Molecular Weight:
46953.625 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.134 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
Inhibitory0.15 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Bard JA, Zgombick J, Adham N, Vaysse P, Branchek TA, Weinshank RL: Cloning of a novel human serotonin receptor (5-HT7) positively linked to adenylate cyclase. J Biol Chem. 1993 Nov 5;268(31):23422-6. [8226867 ]
  2. Kohen R, Metcalf MA, Khan N, Druck T, Huebner K, Lachowicz JE, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR, Roth BL, Hamblin MW: Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal localization of a human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor. J Neurochem. 1996 Jan;66(1):47-56. [8522988 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.012 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Eltze M, Lambrecht G, Mutschler E: Cyproheptadine displays high affinity for muscarinic receptors but does not discriminate between receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Dec 7;173(2-3):219-22. [2625138 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.007 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Eltze M, Lambrecht G, Mutschler E: Cyproheptadine displays high affinity for muscarinic receptors but does not discriminate between receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Dec 7;173(2-3):219-22. [2625138 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.012 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Eltze M, Lambrecht G, Mutschler E: Cyproheptadine displays high affinity for muscarinic receptors but does not discriminate between receptor subtypes. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Dec 7;173(2-3):219-22. [2625138 ]
  2. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.059 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [9686407 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and in the regulation of extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, and thereby affects neural activity. May play a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including impulsive behavior. Required for normal proliferation of embryonic cardiac myocytes and normal heart development. Protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Plays a role in the adaptation of pulmonary arteries to chronic hypoxia. Plays a role in vasoconstriction. Required for normal osteoblast function and proliferation, and for maintaining normal bone density. Required for normal proliferation of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the intestine.
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.00154 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Bonhaus DW, Weinhardt KK, Taylor M, DeSouza A, McNeeley PM, Szczepanski K, Fontana DJ, Trinh J, Rocha CL, Dawson MW, Flippin LA, Eglen RM: RS-102221: a novel high affinity and selective, 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. Neuropharmacology. 1997 Apr-May;36(4-5):621-9. [9225287 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
HTR7
Uniprot ID:
P34969
Molecular Weight:
53554.43 Da
References
  1. Teitler M, Toohey N, Knight JA, Klein MT, Smith C: Clozapine and other competitive antagonists reactivate risperidone-inactivated h5-HT7 receptors: radioligand binding and functional evidence for GPCR homodimer protomer interactions. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Dec;212(4):687-97. doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-2001-x. Epub 2010 Sep 9. [20827463 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.117 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [9686407 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.112 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Peddi S, Roth BL, Glennon RA, Westkaemper RB: Structural determinants for high 5-HT(2A) receptor affinity of spiro[9,10-dihydroanthracene]-9,3(')-pyrrolidine (SpAMDA). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 3;14(9):2279-83. [15081025 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H3 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in CNS and peripheral nervous system. Signals through the inhibition of adenylate cyclase and displays high constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist). Agonist stimulation of isoform 3 neither modified adenylate cyclase activity nor induced intracellular calcium mobilization.
Gene Name:
HRH3
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5N1
Molecular Weight:
48670.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory>10 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Liu C, Ma X, Jiang X, Wilson SJ, Hofstra CL, Blevitt J, Pyati J, Li X, Chai W, Carruthers N, Lovenberg TW: Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a fourth histamine receptor (H(4)) expressed in bone marrow. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;59(3):420-6. [11179434 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H4 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in peripheral tissues. Displays a significant level of constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist).
Gene Name:
HRH4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3N8
Molecular Weight:
44495.375 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.2015 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Nguyen T, Shapiro DA, George SR, Setola V, Lee DK, Cheng R, Rauser L, Lee SP, Lynch KR, Roth BL, O'Dowd BF: Discovery of a novel member of the histamine receptor family. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;59(3):427-33. [11179435 ]
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.008 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Stanton T, Bolden-Watson C, Cusack B, Richelson E: Antagonism of the five cloned human muscarinic cholinergic receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells by antidepressants and antihistaminics. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Jun 9;45(11):2352-4. [8100134 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.29 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Peddi S, Roth BL, Glennon RA, Westkaemper RB: Structural determinants for high 5-HT(2A) receptor affinity of spiro[9,10-dihydroanthracene]-9,3(')-pyrrolidine (SpAMDA). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 3;14(9):2279-83. [15081025 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory4.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50017721
References
  1. Peddi S, Roth BL, Glennon RA, Westkaemper RB: Structural determinants for high 5-HT(2A) receptor affinity of spiro[9,10-dihydroanthracene]-9,3(')-pyrrolidine (SpAMDA). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 3;14(9):2279-83. [15081025 ]