Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:06 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:51 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2819
Identification
Common NameAmoxapine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionAmoxapine, the N-demethylated derivative of the antipsychotic agent loxapine, is a dibenzoxazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, amoxapine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, amoxapine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. In addition, TCAs down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Amoxapine may be used to treat neurotic and reactive depressive disorders, endogenous and psychotic depression, and mixed symptoms of depression and anxiety or agitation.
Compound Type
  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitor
  • Amine
  • Antidepressant, Second-Generation
  • Antidepressive Agent, Second-Generation
  • Dopamine Antagonist
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Metabolite
  • Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitor
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitor
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Chloro-11-(1-piperazinyl)dibenz(b,F)(1,4)oxazepine
Adisen
Amolife
Amoxan
Amoxapin
Amoxapina
Amoxapinum
Amoxepine
Asendin
Asendis
Défanyl
Demolox
Desmethylloxapin
Oxamine
Oxcap
Chemical FormulaC17H16ClN3O
Average Molecular Mass313.781 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass313.098 g/mol
CAS Registry Number14028-44-5
IUPAC Name13-chloro-10-(piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxa-9-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(11),3,5,7,9,12,14-heptaene
Traditional Nameamoxapine
SMILESClC1=CC2=C(OC3=CC=CC=C3N=C2N2CCNCC2)C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C17H16ClN3O/c18-12-5-6-15-13(11-12)17(21-9-7-19-8-10-21)20-14-3-1-2-4-16(14)22-15/h1-6,11,19H,7-10H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=QWGDMFLQWFTERH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzoxazepines. Dibenzoxazepines are compounds containing a dibenzoxazepine moiety, which consists of two benzene connected by an oxazepine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzoxazepines
Sub ClassDibenzoxazepines
Direct ParentDibenzoxazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzoxazepine
  • Diaryl ether
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Piperazine
  • Imidolactam
  • Benzenoid
  • Amidine
  • Carboxylic acid amidine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point175-176°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.71e-01 g/L
LogP3.4
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.17 g/LALOGPS
logP2.82ALOGPS
logP3.08ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area36.86 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity89.82 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability32.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000i-6190000000-1acb98762576326ae75bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-00dl-2690000000-0e598ca107ca857b8f06View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-044i-0169000000-d1665f2e6d27a9efaa39View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-002f-0940000000-9bf5c13f1f2b9b04f465View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00dl-2690000000-0e598ca107ca857b8f06View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0009000000-873be01dd22731e1f7a7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-0049000000-3989b74ad41770f20ee0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01r6-9440000000-54259557a6e11d912eb7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0019000000-eaaa73a51b5bbc0bf28bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0049000000-be3ce6855a4cc094b8fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9250000000-d2f001cf68189e0c19d4View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-052b-4490000000-6bbd0d2c0c8fe332c636View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral, rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the GI tract. Peak plasma concentrations occur within 1-2 hours of oral administration of a single doser.
Mechanism of ToxicityAmoxapine acts by decreasing the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT).
MetabolismAmoxapine is almost completely metabolized in the liver to its major metabolite, 8-hydroxyamoxapine, and a minor metabolite, 7-hydroxyamoxapine. Both metabolites are phamacologically inactive and have half-lives of approximately 30 and 6.5 hours, respectively. Route of Elimination: 60-69% of a single orally administered dose of amoxapine is excreted in urine, principally as conjugated metabolites. 7-18% of the dose is excrete feces mainly as unconjugated metabolites. Less than 5% of the dose is excreted as unchanged drug in urine. Half Life: 8 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the relief of symptoms of depression in patients with neurotic or reactive depressive disorders as well as endogenous and psychotic depressions. May also be used to treat depression accompanied by anxiety or agitation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsToxic manifestations of amoxapine overdosage differ significantly from those of other tricyclic antidepressants. Serious cardiovascular effects are seldom if ever observed. However, CNS effects, particularly grand mal convulsions, occur frequently, and treatment should be directed primarily toward prevention or control of seizures. Status epilepticus may develop and constitutes a neurologic emergency. Coma and acidosis are other serious complications of substantial amoxapine overdosage in some cases. Renal failure may develop two to five days after toxic overdose in patients who may appear otherwise recovered. Acute tubular necrosis with rhabdomuolysis and myolobinurla is the most common renal complication in such cases. This reaction probably occurs in less than 5% of overdose cases, and typically in those who have experienced multiple seizures.
TreatmentTreatment of amoxapine overdosage should be symptomatic and supportive, but with special attention to prevention or control of seizures. If the patient is conscious, induced emesis followed by gastric lavage with appropriate precautions to prevent pulmonary aspiration should be accomplished as soon as possible. Following lavage, activated charcoal may be administered to reduce absorption, and repeated administrations may facilitate drug elimination. An adequate airway should be established in comatose patients and assisted ventilation instituted if necessary. Seizures may respond to standard anticonvulsant therapy such as intravenous diazepam and/or phenytoin. The value of physostigmine appears less certain. Status epilepticus, should it develop, requires vigorous treatment. (2)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00543
HMDB IDHMDB14683
PubChem Compound ID2170
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1113
ChemSpider ID2085
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID2675
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAmoxapine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmoxapine
References
Synthesis Reference

Howell, C.F., Hardy, R.A., Jr. and Quinones, N.Q.; US. Patent 3,663,696; May 16, 1972; assigned to American Cyanamid Company
Howell, C.F., Hardy, R.A., Jr. and Quinones, N.Q.; U.S. Patent 3,681,357; August 1, 1972; assigned to American Cyanamid Company

MSDST3D2819.pdf
General References
  1. Drugs.com [Link]
  2. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.016 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular Weight:
46106.335 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.221 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Gozlan H, Saddiki-Traki F, Merahi N, Laguzzi R, Hamon M: [Preclinical pharmacology of amoxapine and amitriptyline. Implications of serotoninergic and opiodergic systems in their central effect in rats]. Encephale. 1991 Dec;17 Spec No 3:415-22. [1666997 ]
  2. Liegeois JF, Deville M, Dilly S, Lamy C, Mangin F, Resimont M, Tarazi FI: New pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives derived from 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine (JL13): chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 2012 Feb 23;55(4):1572-82. doi: 10.1021/jm2013419. Epub 2012 Feb 13. [22268448 ]
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.00177 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Palvimaki EP, Roth BL, Majasuo H, Laakso A, Kuoppamaki M, Syvalahti E, Hietala J: Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with the serotonin 5-HT2c receptor. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Aug;126(3):234-40. [8876023 ]
  2. Liegeois JF, Deville M, Dilly S, Lamy C, Mangin F, Resimont M, Tarazi FI: New pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives derived from 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine (JL13): chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 2012 Feb 23;55(4):1572-82. doi: 10.1021/jm2013419. Epub 2012 Feb 13. [22268448 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. It has a high affinity for tricyclic psychotropic drugs (By similarity). Controls pyramidal neurons migration during corticogenesis, through the regulation of CDK5 activity (By similarity). Is an activator of TOR signaling (PubMed:23027611).
Gene Name:
HTR6
Uniprot ID:
P50406
Molecular Weight:
46953.625 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.05 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Roth BL, Craigo SC, Choudhary MS, Uluer A, Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR: Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Mar;268(3):1403-10. [7908055 ]
  2. Kohen R, Metcalf MA, Khan N, Druck T, Huebner K, Lachowicz JE, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR, Roth BL, Hamblin MW: Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal localization of a human 5-HT6 serotonin receptor. J Neurochem. 1996 Jan;66(1):47-56. [8522988 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
HTR7
Uniprot ID:
P34969
Molecular Weight:
53554.43 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Roth BL, Craigo SC, Choudhary MS, Uluer A, Monsma FJ Jr, Shen Y, Meltzer HY, Sibley DR: Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Mar;268(3):1403-10. [7908055 ]
  2. Glennon RA: Higher-end serotonin receptors: 5-HT(5), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7). J Med Chem. 2003 Jul 3;46(14):2795-812. [12825922 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Wei HB, Niu XY: [Comparison of the affinities of amoxapine and loxapine for various receptors in rat brain and the receptor down-regulation after chronic administration]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1990;25(12):881-5. [1966571 ]
  2. Buckley NA, McManus PR: Can the fatal toxicity of antidepressant drugs be predicted with pharmacological and toxicological data? Drug Saf. 1998 May;18(5):369-81. [9589848 ]
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
  2. Buckley NA, McManus PR: Can the fatal toxicity of antidepressant drugs be predicted with pharmacological and toxicological data? Drug Saf. 1998 May;18(5):369-81. [9589848 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Wei HB, Niu XY: [Comparison of the affinities of amoxapine and loxapine for various receptors in rat brain and the receptor down-regulation after chronic administration]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1990;25(12):881-5. [1966571 ]
  2. Nasu R, Matsuo H, Takanaga H, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Quantitative prediction of catalepsy induced by amoxapine, cinnarizine and cyclophosphamide in mice. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 May;21(4):129-38. [11180191 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular Weight:
48359.86 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.034 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Burstein ES, Ma J, Wong S, Gao Y, Pham E, Knapp AE, Nash NR, Olsson R, Davis RE, Hacksell U, Weiner DM, Brann MR: Intrinsic efficacy of antipsychotics at human D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptors: identification of the clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine as a D2/D3 partial agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Dec;315(3):1278-87. Epub 2005 Aug 31. [16135699 ]
  2. Liegeois JF, Deville M, Dilly S, Lamy C, Mangin F, Resimont M, Tarazi FI: New pyridobenzoxazepine derivatives derived from 5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepine (JL13): chemical synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. J Med Chem. 2012 Feb 23;55(4):1572-82. doi: 10.1021/jm2013419. Epub 2012 Feb 13. [22268448 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Richelson E: Antimuscarinic and other receptor-blocking properties of antidepressants. Mayo Clin Proc. 1983 Jan;58(1):40-6. [6130192 ]
  2. Buckley NA, McManus PR: Can the fatal toxicity of antidepressant drugs be predicted with pharmacological and toxicological data? Drug Saf. 1998 May;18(5):369-81. [9589848 ]
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.058 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Spurlock G, Buckland P, O'Donovan M, McGuffin P: Lack of effect of antidepressant drugs on the levels of mRNAs encoding serotonergic receptors, synthetic enzymes and 5HT transporter. Neuropharmacology. 1994 Mar-Apr;33(3-4):433-40. [7984281 ]
  2. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity. Arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Regulates the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, nociceptive processing, pain perception, mood and behavior. Besides, plays a role in vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries.
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular Weight:
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Gozlan H, Saddiki-Traki F, Merahi N, Laguzzi R, Hamon M: [Preclinical pharmacology of amoxapine and amitriptyline. Implications of serotoninergic and opiodergic systems in their central effect in rats]. Encephale. 1991 Dec;17 Spec No 3:415-22. [1666997 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and in the regulation of extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, and thereby affects neural activity. May play a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including impulsive behavior. Required for normal proliferation of embryonic cardiac myocytes and normal heart development. Protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Plays a role in the adaptation of pulmonary arteries to chronic hypoxia. Plays a role in vasoconstriction. Required for normal osteoblast function and proliferation, and for maintaining normal bone density. Required for normal proliferation of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the intestine.
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Glusa E, Pertz HH: Further evidence that 5-HT-induced relaxation of pig pulmonary artery is mediated by endothelial 5-HT(2B) receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;130(3):692-8. [10821800 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Glusa E, Pertz HH: Further evidence that 5-HT-induced relaxation of pig pulmonary artery is mediated by endothelial 5-HT(2B) receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;130(3):692-8. [10821800 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which when activated causes fast, depolarizing responses in neurons. It is a cation-specific, but otherwise relatively nonselective, ion channel.
Gene Name:
HTR3A
Uniprot ID:
P46098
Molecular Weight:
55279.835 Da
References
  1. Gozlan H, Saddiki-Traki F, Merahi N, Laguzzi R, Hamon M: [Preclinical pharmacology of amoxapine and amitriptyline. Implications of serotoninergic and opiodergic systems in their central effect in rats]. Encephale. 1991 Dec;17 Spec No 3:415-22. [1666997 ]
16. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (Protein Group)
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Included Proteins:
P35348 , P35368 , P25100
References
  1. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
17. Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (Protein Group)
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Included Proteins:
P08913 , P18089 , P18825
References
  1. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Nasu R, Matsuo H, Takanaga H, Ohtani H, Sawada Y: Quantitative prediction of catalepsy induced by amoxapine, cinnarizine and cyclophosphamide in mice. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2000 May;21(4):129-38. [11180191 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Burstein ES, Ma J, Wong S, Gao Y, Pham E, Knapp AE, Nash NR, Olsson R, Davis RE, Hacksell U, Weiner DM, Brann MR: Intrinsic efficacy of antipsychotics at human D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptors: identification of the clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine as a D2/D3 partial agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Dec;315(3):1278-87. Epub 2005 Aug 31. [16135699 ]
20. GABA-A receptor (anion channel) (Protein Group)
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Included Proteins:
P14867 , P47869 , P34903 , P48169 , P31644 , Q16445 , P18505 , P47870 , P28472 , O14764 , P78334 , Q8N1C3 , P18507 , Q99928 , O00591 , Q9UN88
References
  1. Wei HB, Niu XY: [Comparison of the affinities of amoxapine and loxapine for various receptors in rat brain and the receptor down-regulation after chronic administration]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1990;25(12):881-5. [1966571 ]
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Buckley NA, McManus PR: Can the fatal toxicity of antidepressant drugs be predicted with pharmacological and toxicological data? Drug Saf. 1998 May;18(5):369-81. [9589848 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The H4 subclass of histamine receptors could mediate the histamine signals in peripheral tissues. Displays a significant level of constitutive activity (spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist).
Gene Name:
HRH4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3N8
Molecular Weight:
44495.375 Da
References
  1. Lim HD, van Rijn RM, Ling P, Bakker RA, Thurmond RL, Leurs R: Evaluation of histamine H1-, H2-, and H3-receptor ligands at the human histamine H4 receptor: identification of 4-methylhistamine as the first potent and selective H4 receptor agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Sep;314(3):1310-21. Epub 2005 Jun 9. [15947036 ]
24. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Included Proteins:
P11229 , P08172 , P20309 , P08173 , P08912
References
  1. Richelson E, Nelson A: Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Jul;230(1):94-102. [6086881 ]
General Function:
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular Weight:
68494.255 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory4.31 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 22870
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]