Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:27:20 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:52 UTC
Accession NumberT3D2850
Identification
Common NamePentazocine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPentazocine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is the first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)The preponderance of evidence suggests that pentazocine antagonizes the opioid effects by competing for the same receptor sites, especially the opioid mu receptor.
Compound Type
  • Adjuvant, Anesthesia
  • Amine
  • Analgesic, Opioid
  • Drug
  • Metabolite
  • Narcotic
  • Narcotic Antagonist
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Fortal
Fortral
Fortwin
L-Pentazocine
Pangon
Pentagin
Pentazocaine
Pentazocin
Pentazocina
Pentazocinum
Sosegon
Stopain
Talwin
Talwin PX
Chemical FormulaC19H27NO
Average Molecular Mass285.424 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass285.209 g/mol
CAS Registry Number359-83-1
IUPAC Name(1R,9R,13R)-1,13-dimethyl-10-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-10-azatricyclo[7.3.1.0²,⁷]trideca-2,4,6-trien-4-ol
Traditional Namepentazocine
SMILES[H][C@]12CC3=C(C=C(O)C=C3)[C@](C)(CCN1CC=C(C)C)[C@@]2([H])C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C19H27NO/c1-13(2)7-9-20-10-8-19(4)14(3)18(20)11-15-5-6-16(21)12-17(15)19/h5-7,12,14,18,21H,8-11H2,1-4H3/t14-,18+,19+/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=VOKSWYLNZZRQPF-GDIGMMSISA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 2,6-dimethyl-3-benzazocines. These are aromatic compounds containing a 6,7-benzomorphan skeleton, which is substituted by methyl group at the 2- and 6-positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
Class6,7-benzomorphans
Sub Class2,6-dimethyl-3-benzazocines
Direct Parent2,6-dimethyl-3-benzazocines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2,6-dimethyl-3-benzazocine
  • 4-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan
  • Benzazocine
  • Tetralin
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Piperidine
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary amine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point146.3°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility1.22e-01 g/L
LogP4.64
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.12 g/LALOGPS
logP4.44ALOGPS
logP3.89ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area23.47 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity89.8 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability33.86 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-4490000000-a55a414896d563e7aa3dView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-6079000000-3fb9a9a9c86659fbbee2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-1090000000-8390171314730328d23aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014r-5190000000-093358a58c8c1faab502View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9220000000-2690544e141eb42e324bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-65f24c15362c36e119a9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00lr-1090000000-5cba8a2f286ab0e94fc0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0gb9-3290000000-8498666fd4d422f5b9f1View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureIntravenous, Oral. Well absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract.
Mechanism of ToxicityThe preponderance of evidence suggests that pentazocine antagonizes the opioid effects by competing for the same receptor sites, especially the opioid mu receptor.
MetabolismHepatic Half Life: 2 to 3 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesUsed to treat mild to moderately severe pain. [Wikipedia]
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsMedical problems can include congested lungs, liver disease, tetanus, cardiovascular effects, infection of the heart valves, skin abscesses, anemia and pneumonia. Death can occur from overdose.
Symptomshallucinations and other psychotomimetic effects; cardiovascular effects
TreatmentAdequate measures to maintain ventilation and general circulatory support should be employed. Assisted or controlled ventilation, intravenous fluids, vasopressors, and other supportive measures should be employed as indicated. Consideration should be given to gastric lavage and gastric aspiration. For respiratory depression due to overdosage or unusual sensitivity to pentazocine, parenteral naloxone is a specific and effective antagonist. Initial doses of 0.4 to 2.0 mg of naloxone are recommended, repeated at 2-3 minute intervals, if needed, up to a total of 10 mg. Anti
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00652
HMDB IDHMDB14790
PubChem Compound ID441278
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL560
ChemSpider ID390041
KEGG IDC07421
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID116117
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDPentazocine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPentazocine
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Harati Y, Gooch C, Swenson M, Edelman SV, Greene D, Raskin P, Donofrio P, Cornblath D, Olson WH, Kamin M: Maintenance of the long-term effectiveness of tramadol in treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. J Diabetes Complications. 2000 Mar-Apr;14(2):65-70. [10959067 ]
  2. AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97
  3. Drugs.com [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
Functions in lipid transport from the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in a wide array of cellular functions probably through regulation of the biogenesis of lipid microdomains at the plasma membrane. Involved in the regulation of different receptors it plays a role in BDNF signaling and EGF signaling. Also regulates ion channels like the potassium channel and could modulate neurotransmitter release. Plays a role in calcium signaling through modulation together with ANK2 of the ITP3R-dependent calcium efflux at the endoplasmic reticulum. Plays a role in several other cell functions including proliferation, survival and death. Originally identified for its ability to bind various psychoactive drugs it is involved in learning processes, memory and mood alteration (PubMed:16472803, PubMed:9341151). Necessary for proper mitochondrial axonal transport in motor neurons, in particular the retrograde movement of mitochondria (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SIGMAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q99720
Molecular Weight:
25127.52 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0038 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50001028
References
  1. Chien CC, Pasternak GW: (-)-Pentazocine analgesia in mice: interactions with a sigma receptor system. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Dec 27;294(1):303-8. [8788445 ]
  2. Colabufo NA, Contino M, Inglese C, Niso M, Perrone R, Roperto S, Roperto F: In vitro and ex vivo characterization of sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors: agonists and antagonists in biological assays. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2009 Sep;9(3):161-71. [20021350 ]
  3. Dun Y, Thangaraju M, Prasad P, Ganapathy V, Smith SB: Prevention of excitotoxicity in primary retinal ganglion cells by (+)-pentazocine, a sigma receptor-1 specific ligand. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Oct;48(10):4785-94. [17898305 ]
  4. Mamolo MG, Zampieri D, Zanette C, Florio C, Collina S, Urbano M, Azzolina O, Vio L: Substituted benzylaminoalkylindoles with preference for the sigma2 binding site. Eur J Med Chem. 2008 Oct;43(10):2073-81. Epub 2007 Sep 26. [18069094 ]
  5. Pal A, Hajipour AR, Fontanilla D, Ramachandran S, Chu UB, Mavlyutov T, Ruoho AE: Identification of regions of the sigma-1 receptor ligand binding site using a novel photoprobe. Mol Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;72(4):921-33. Epub 2007 Jul 10. [17622576 ]
  6. He XS, Raymon LP, Mattson MV, Eldefrawi ME, de Costa BR: Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-[1-(2-benzo[b]thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine homologues at dopamine-uptake and phencyclidine- and sigma-binding sites. J Med Chem. 1993 Apr 30;36(9):1188-93. [8098066 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociation of the G-protein complex with the free GTP-bound G-protein alpha and the G-protein beta-gamma dimer activating downstream cellular effectors. The agonist- and cell type-specific activity is predominantly coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i) and G(o) G alpha proteins, GNAI1, GNAI2, GNAI3 and GNAO1 isoforms Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, and to a lesser extend to pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha proteins GNAZ and GNA15. They mediate an array of downstream cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and both N-type and L-type calcium channels, activation of inward rectifying potassium channels, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C (PLC), phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and regulation of NF-kappa-B. Also couples to adenylate cyclase stimulatory G alpha proteins. The selective temporal coupling to G-proteins and subsequent signaling can be regulated by RGSZ proteins, such as RGS9, RGS17 and RGS4. Phosphorylation by members of the GPRK subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases and association with beta-arrestins is involved in short-term receptor desensitization. Beta-arrestins associate with the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and uncouple it from the G-protein thus terminating signal transduction. The phosphorylated receptor is internalized through endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits which involves beta-arrestins. The activation of the ERK pathway occurs either in a G-protein-dependent or a beta-arrestin-dependent manner and is regulated by agonist-specific receptor phosphorylation. Acts as a class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which dissociates from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergoes rapid recycling. Receptor down-regulation pathways are varying with the agonist and occur dependent or independent of G-protein coupling. Endogenous ligands induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis and recycling whereas morphine induces only low desensitization and endocytosis. Heterooligomerization with other GPCRs can modulate agonist binding, signaling and trafficking properties. Involved in neurogenesis. Isoform 12 couples to GNAS and is proposed to be involved in excitatory effects. Isoform 16 and isoform 17 do not bind agonists but may act through oligomerization with binding-competent OPRM1 isoforms and reduce their ligand binding activity.
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Picker MJ, Benyas S, Horwitz JA, Thompson K, Mathewson C, Smith MA: Discriminative stimulus effects of butorphanol: influence of training dose on the substitution patterns produced by Mu, Kappa and Delta opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Dec;279(3):1130-41. [8968334 ]
  2. Levine JD, Gordon NC: Synergism between the analgesic actions of morphine and pentazocine. Pain. 1988 Jun;33(3):369-72. [3419842 ]
  3. Martin BR, Katzen JS, Woods JA, Tripathi HL, Harris LS, May EL: Stereoisomers of [3H]-N-allylnormetazocine bind to different sites in mouse brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1984 Dec;231(3):539-44. [6094791 ]
  4. Kamei J, Iwamoto Y, Misawa M, Nagase H, Kasuya Y: Effects of diabetes on the antinociceptive effect of (+/-)pentazocine in mice. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1994 Apr;84(1):105-10. [8042002 ]
  5. Saha N, Datta H, Sharma PL: Effects of morphine, buprenorphine, pentazocine and nalorphine on acquisition and extinction of active avoidance responses in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1990 Jul;34(3):179-82. [2286420 ]
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in mediating reduced physical activity upon treatment with synthetic opioids. Plays a role in the regulation of salivation in response to synthetic opioids. May play a role in arousal and regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine functions.
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0022 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50001028
References
  1. Chien CC, Pasternak GW: (-)-Pentazocine analgesia in mice: interactions with a sigma receptor system. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995 Dec 27;294(1):303-8. [8788445 ]
  2. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [9686407 ]
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain and in opiate-mediated analgesia. Plays a role in developing analgesic tolerance to morphine.
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.0493 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50001028
References
  1. Toll L, Berzetei-Gurske IP, Polgar WE, Brandt SR, Adapa ID, Rodriguez L, Schwartz RW, Haggart D, O'Brien A, White A, Kennedy JM, Craymer K, Farrington L, Auh JS: Standard binding and functional assays related to medications development division testing for potential cocaine and opiate narcotic treatment medications. NIDA Res Monogr. 1998 Mar;178:440-66. [9686407 ]