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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:40 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3025
Identification
Common NameKetamine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionKetamine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate) and may interact with sigma receptors. [PubChem] Ketamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, it also causes some stimulation of the cardiocascular system. Ketamine has been reported to produce general as well as local anaesthesia. It interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Analgesic
  • Anesthetic
  • Anesthetic, Dissociative
  • Drug
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonist
  • General Anesthetic
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+-)-Ketamine
(-)-Ketamine
(S)-(-)-Ketamine
(S)-Ketamine
(±)-ketamine
2-(2-Chloro-phenyl)-2-methylamino-cyclohexanone
2-(methylamino)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)cyclohexanone
2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone
CI 581 base
DL-ketamine
Ketaject
Ketalar
Ketamina
KETAMINE
Ketamine Base
Ketamine HCL
Ketaminum
Ketanest
L-Ketamine
NMDA
Special k
Chemical FormulaC13H16ClNO
Average Molecular Mass237.725 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass237.092 g/mol
CAS Registry Number6740-88-1
IUPAC Name2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexan-1-one
Traditional Nameketamine
SMILESCNC1(CCCCC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=YQEZLKZALYSWHR-UHFFFAOYNA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as chlorobenzenes. Chlorobenzenes are compounds containing one or more chlorine atoms attached to a benzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassHalobenzenes
Direct ParentChlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aralkylamine
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Ketone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary amine
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point92-93°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility4.64e-02 g/L
LogP2.9
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.046 g/LALOGPS
logP2.69ALOGPS
logP3.35ChemAxon
logS-3.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.78ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.1 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity65.55 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability24.97 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ue9-1900000000-137b9855ffed670aa9f4JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-004i-0930000000-8216e02922628a5070cfJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-7704dbbfa717abc4bab2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-aff2b684d97275321043JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0290000000-1707dec51cc3e89964c9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0940000000-59871faec16835eb1b3aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-ca62e82b4a1dfb81b3b0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-6c243d7b1c2e8cf69efaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-441a423105753e2c8b9cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-24585e7c2431b3b9319eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-000i-0290000000-c9d734b085ec94dabd9aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0940000000-054d77385726d4e35e20JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-8c263bb521fb6ebe6cacJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-702873d66ce0d419711dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-e23ba411aa96df9b5d6fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-5f14196db213c95f3e71JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-85385cf96aa2ac05921aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-05br-0390000000-9177663a5915fac51aa7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-0910000000-d00d242dae695dc5aff9JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-95c2a8805f1587266feaJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0190000000-d3addd1c61dae1965d68JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-2490000000-4b32229520af03c01035JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uy0-3900000000-f31baf727a934e3e0c6fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0090000000-3166c540bb2a7f57489eJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0390000000-f6a156602d423ed34dc1JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0229-8920000000-d5d51aef2ac12188e9e8JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureRapidly absorbed following parenteral administration.
Mechanism of ToxicityKetamine has several clinically useful properties, including analgesia and less cardiorespiratory depressant effects than other anaesthetic agents, it also causes some stimulation of the cardiocascular system. Ketamine has been reported to produce general as well as local anaesthesia. It interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, opioid receptors, monoaminergic receptors, muscarinic receptors and voltage sensitive Ca ion channels. Unlike other general anaesthetic agents, ketamine does not interact with GABA receptors.
MetabolismHepatic. Half Life: 2.5-3 hours.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesKetamine is primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with some sedative drug. Other uses include sedation in intensive care, analgesia (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm. It is also a popular anesthetic in veterinary medicine. [Wikipedia] For use as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic use of ketamine may lead to cognitive impairments including memory problems. [Wikipedia]
SymptomsKetamine has a wide range of effects in humans, including analgesia, anesthesia, hallucinations, elevated blood pressure, and bronchodilation.[Wikipedia]
TreatmentSupportive ventilation should be employed. Mechanical support of respiration is preferred to administration of analeptics. (7)
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01221
HMDB IDHMDB15352
PubChem Compound ID3821
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL742
ChemSpider ID3689
KEGG IDC07525
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID6121
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDKetamine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkKetamine
References
Synthesis Reference

John A. Flores, Kenton L. Crowley, “Process for the preparation of ketamine ointment.” U.S. Patent US5817699, issued June, 1995.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Harrison NL, Simmonds MA: Quantitative studies on some antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate in slices of rat cerebral cortex. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Feb;84(2):381-91. [2858237 ]
  2. Bergman SA: Ketamine: review of its pharmacology and its use in pediatric anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 1999 Winter;46(1):10-20. [10551055 ]
  3. Bonanno FG: Ketamine in war/tropical surgery (a final tribute to the racemic mixture). Injury. 2002 May;33(4):323-7. [12091028 ]
  4. Lankenau SE, Sanders B, Bloom JJ, Hathazi D, Alarcon E, Tortu S, Clatts MC: First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 Mar 16;87(2-3):183-93. Epub 2006 Sep 18. [16979848 ]
  5. Reboso Morales JA, Gonzalez Miranda F: [Ketamine]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1999 Mar;46(3):111-22. [10228376 ]
  6. Drugs.com [Link]
  7. RxList: The Internet Drug Index (2009). [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain and in opiate-mediated analgesia. Plays a role in developing analgesic tolerance to morphine.
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [6246318 ]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [8835358 ]
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Plays a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in mediating reduced physical activity upon treatment with synthetic opioids. Plays a role in the regulation of salivation in response to synthetic opioids. May play a role in arousal and regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine functions.
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [6246318 ]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [8835358 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociation of the G-protein complex with the free GTP-bound G-protein alpha and the G-protein beta-gamma dimer activating downstream cellular effectors. The agonist- and cell type-specific activity is predominantly coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i) and G(o) G alpha proteins, GNAI1, GNAI2, GNAI3 and GNAO1 isoforms Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, and to a lesser extend to pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha proteins GNAZ and GNA15. They mediate an array of downstream cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and both N-type and L-type calcium channels, activation of inward rectifying potassium channels, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C (PLC), phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and regulation of NF-kappa-B. Also couples to adenylate cyclase stimulatory G alpha proteins. The selective temporal coupling to G-proteins and subsequent signaling can be regulated by RGSZ proteins, such as RGS9, RGS17 and RGS4. Phosphorylation by members of the GPRK subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases and association with beta-arrestins is involved in short-term receptor desensitization. Beta-arrestins associate with the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and uncouple it from the G-protein thus terminating signal transduction. The phosphorylated receptor is internalized through endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits which involves beta-arrestins. The activation of the ERK pathway occurs either in a G-protein-dependent or a beta-arrestin-dependent manner and is regulated by agonist-specific receptor phosphorylation. Acts as a class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which dissociates from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergoes rapid recycling. Receptor down-regulation pathways are varying with the agonist and occur dependent or independent of G-protein coupling. Endogenous ligands induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis and recycling whereas morphine induces only low desensitization and endocytosis. Heterooligomerization with other GPCRs can modulate agonist binding, signaling and trafficking properties. Involved in neurogenesis. Isoform 12 couples to GNAS and is proposed to be involved in excitatory effects. Isoform 16 and isoform 17 do not bind agonists but may act through oligomerization with binding-competent OPRM1 isoforms and reduce their ligand binding activity.
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Smith DJ, Pekoe GM, Martin LL, Coalgate B: The interaction of ketamine with the opiate receptor. Life Sci. 1980 Mar 10;26(10):789-95. [6246318 ]
  2. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [8835358 ]
4. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1 (Protein Group)
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that regulates the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine release and in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels in the brain, and thereby affects neural activity, mood and behavior. Plays a role in the response to anxiogenic stimuli.
Included Proteins:
P08908 , P28222 , P28221 , P28566 , P30939
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [6460944 ]
5. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2 (Protein Group)
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Included Proteins:
P28223 , P41595 , P28335
References
  1. Martin LL, Bouchal RL, Smith DJ: Ketamine inhibits serotonin uptake in vivo. Neuropharmacology. 1982 Feb;21(2):113-8. [6460944 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Seeman P, Guan HC, Hirbec H: Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide, salvinorin A, and modafinil. Synapse. 2009 Aug;63(8):698-704. doi: 10.1002/syn.20647. [19391150 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels possesses high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Activation requires binding of agonist to both types of subunits.
Gene Name:
GRIN2A
Uniprot ID:
Q12879
Molecular Weight:
165281.215 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC506.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50044140
References
  1. Rook Y, Schmidtke KU, Gaube F, Schepmann D, Wunsch B, Heilmann J, Lehmann J, Winckler T: Bivalent beta-carbolines as potential multitarget anti-Alzheimer agents. J Med Chem. 2010 May 13;53(9):3611-7. doi: 10.1021/jm1000024. [20361801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. In concert with DAPK1 at extrasynaptic sites, acts as a central mediator for stroke damage. Its phosphorylation at Ser-1303 by DAPK1 enhances synaptic NMDA receptor channel activity inducing injurious Ca2+ influx through them, resulting in an irreversible neuronal death (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN2B
Uniprot ID:
Q13224
Molecular Weight:
166365.885 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC503.2 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50044140
References
  1. Rook Y, Schmidtke KU, Gaube F, Schepmann D, Wunsch B, Heilmann J, Lehmann J, Winckler T: Bivalent beta-carbolines as potential multitarget anti-Alzheimer agents. J Med Chem. 2010 May 13;53(9):3611-7. doi: 10.1021/jm1000024. [20361801 ]
General Function:
Protein phosphatase 2a binding
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with reduced single-channel conductance, low calcium permeability and low voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. May play a role in the development of dendritic spines. May play a role in PPP2CB-NMDAR mediated signaling mechanism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GRIN3A
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCU5
Molecular Weight:
125464.07 Da
References
  1. Smothers CT, Woodward JJ: Pharmacological characterization of glycine-activated currents in HEK 293 cells expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate NR1 and NR3 subunits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):739-48. Epub 2007 May 14. [17502428 ]
10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (Protein Group)
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Included Proteins:
P11229 , P08172 , P20309 , P08173 , P08912
References
  1. Hustveit O, Maurset A, Oye I: Interaction of the chiral forms of ketamine with opioid, phencyclidine, sigma and muscarinic receptors. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1995 Dec;77(6):355-9. [8835358 ]
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Salt PJ, Barnes PK, Beswick FJ: Inhibition of neuronal and extraneuronal uptake of noradrenaline by ketamine in the isolated perfused rat heart. Br J Anaesth. 1979 Sep;51(9):835-8. [508488 ]
General Function:
Tachykinin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is a receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance P. It is probably associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of affinity of this receptor to tachykinins is: substance P > substance K > neuromedin-K.
Gene Name:
TACR1
Uniprot ID:
P25103
Molecular Weight:
46250.5 Da
References
  1. Okamoto T, Minami K, Uezono Y, Ogata J, Shiraishi M, Shigematsu A, Ueta Y: The inhibitory effects of ketamine and pentobarbital on substance p receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Anesth Analg. 2003 Jul;97(1):104-10, table of contents. [12818951 ]