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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-08-05 17:27:44 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:10 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3571
Identification
Common NameNitric acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionNitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid. The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to decomposition into oxides of nitrogen and water. Most commercially available nitric acid has a concentration of 68%. When the solution contains more than 86% HNO3, it is referred to as fuming nitric acid. Nitric acid is the primary reagent used for nitration - the addition of a nitro group, typically to an organic molecule. The main industrial use of nitric acid is for the production of fertilizers. Nitric acid is neutralized with ammonia to give ammonium nitrate. The other main applications are for the production of explosives, nylon precursors, and specialty organic compounds.
Compound Type
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Nitrate
  • Nitrite
  • Non-Metal
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Acide azotique
Acide nitrique
Acido nitrico
Acidum nitricum
Acidum Nitricum-Injeel Forte Liq (D6-D200)
Aqua fortis
Azotic acid
Azotowy kwas
Dynamite acid
Engraver's acid
Engravers acid
Fuming nitric acid
HNO3
HONO2
Hydrogen nitrate
hydrogen trioxonitrate(1-)
Hydroxidodioxidonitrogen
Kyselina dusicne
Nital
Nitraline
Nitrate
Nitric acid (red fuming)
Nitric acid anhydrous
Nitric acid fuming
Nitric acid red fuming
Nitric acid standard solution
Nitricum acidum
Nitrous fumes
Nitryl hydroxide
Red fuming nitric acid
RFNA
Salpetersaeure
Salpetersaure
Salpeterzuuroplossingen
Trioxonitric acid
[NO2(OH)]
Chemical FormulaHNO3
Average Molecular Mass63.013 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass62.996 g/mol
CAS Registry Number7697-37-2
IUPAC Namenitric acid
Traditional Namenitric acid
SMILESO[N+]([O-])=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/HNO3/c2-1(3)4/h(H,2,3,4)
InChI KeyInChIKey=GRYLNZFGIOXLOG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal nitrates. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a nitrate as its largest oxoanion.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassNon-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal nitrates
Direct ParentNon-metal nitrates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Non-metal nitrate
  • Inorganic oxide
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-42°C
Boiling Point83°C
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.028ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-1.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.05 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity10.47 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.55 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-75a0abe959565212ac4fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-8e1d753ca100f3f6d92dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01ot-9000000000-f295c80752f82f542bfaJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-59f156be4bb354eb31f7JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-9000000000-dbfc7b33c21beeeeb7e8JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-03dj-9000000000-a596b228780b7e6ae195JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (6) ; inhalation (6)
Mechanism of ToxicityNitric acid is a corrosive acid and a powerful oxidizing agent. The major hazard posed by it is chemical burns as it carries out acid hydrolysis with proteins (amide) and fats (ester) which consequently decomposes living tissue (e.g. skin and flesh). Concentrated nitric acid stains human skin yellow due to its reaction with the keratin. These yellow stains turn orange when neutralized. Systemic effects are unlikely, however, and the substance is not considered a carcinogen or mutagen.
MetabolismIntake of some amount of nitrates and nitrites is a normal part of the nitrogen cycle in humans. In vivo conversion of nitrates to nitrites can occur in the gastrointestional tract under the right conditions, significantly enhancing nitrates' toxic potency. The major metabolic pathway for nitrate is conversion to nitrite, and then to ammonia. Nitrites, nitrates, and their metabolites are excreted in the urine. (6)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 138 ppm over 30 minutes (Inhalation, Rat) (2)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Ingested nitrate or nitrite under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). (4)
Uses/SourcesThe main industrial use of nitric acid is for the production of fertilizers. Nitric acid is neutralized with ammonia to give ammonium nitrate. The other main applications are for the production of explosives, nylon precursors, and specialty organic compounds.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsSkin contact with nitric acid can cause redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Nitric acid may cause severe burns to the eye and permanent eye damage. Severe and rapid corrosive burns of the mouth, gullet and gastrointestinal tract will result if nitric acid is swallowed. Symptoms include burning, choking, nausea, vomiting and severe pain.
SymptomsSkin contact can cause redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Nitric acid may cause severe burns to the eye and permanent eye damage. Severe and rapid corrosive burns of the mouth, gullet and gastrointestinal tract will result if nitric acid is swallowed. Symptoms include burning, choking, nausea, vomiting and severe pain.
TreatmentThe mainstay of treatment of any acid burn is copious irrigation with large amounts of tap water. To be most effective, treatment should be started immediately after exposure, preferably before arrival in the emergency department. Remove any contaminated clothing. Do not attempt to neutralize the burn with weak reciprocal chemicals (i.e. alkali for acid burns), because the heat generated from the chemical reaction may cause severe thermal injury.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID944
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1352
ChemSpider ID919
KEGG IDC00244
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID48107
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNitric acid
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID6154
Wikipedia LinkNitric_acid
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3571.pdf
General References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Park CH, Carboni E, Wood PL, Gee KW: Characterization of peripheral benzodiazepine type sites in a cultured murine BV-2 microglial cell line. Glia. 1996 Jan;16(1):65-70. [8787774 ]
  3. Environment Canada (1981). Tech Info for Problem Spills: Nitric acid.
  4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1997). Toxicological profile for hydrazine. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Nitrate/Nitrite Toxicity. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Nitric acid. Last Updated August 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory7000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Zimmerman S, Ferry JG, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Sep 6;14(17):4563-7. [15357993 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Lehtonen JM, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the newly isolated murine isozyme XIII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Nov 1;14(21):5435-9. [15454240 ]
  3. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  4. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
  5. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory35000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Zimmerman S, Ferry JG, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the beta-class enzyme from the methanoarchaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (Cab) with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Sep 6;14(17):4563-7. [15357993 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Lehtonen JM, Parkkila S, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the newly isolated murine isozyme XIII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Nov 1;14(21):5435-9. [15454240 ]
  3. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  4. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
  5. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory58700 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular Weight:
49697.36 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory46000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Firnges MA, Antel J, Wurl M, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the membrane-bound human isozyme IV with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Dec 6;14(23):5769-73. [15501038 ]
  2. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBA1
Uniprot ID:
P69905
Molecular Weight:
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.LVV-hemorphin-7 potentiates the activity of bradykinin, causing a decrease in blood pressure.Spinorphin: functions as an endogenous inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes such as DPP3, and as a selective antagonist of the P2RX3 receptor which is involved in pain signaling, these properties implicate it as a regulator of pain and inflammation.
Gene Name:
HBB
Uniprot ID:
P68871
Molecular Weight:
15998.34 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name:
HBD
Uniprot ID:
P02042
Molecular Weight:
16055.41 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The epsilon chain is a beta-type chain of early mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBE1
Uniprot ID:
P02100
Molecular Weight:
16202.71 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Gene Name:
HBG1
Uniprot ID:
P69891
Molecular Weight:
16140.37 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Gamma chains make up the fetal hemoglobin F, in combination with alpha chains.
Specific Function:
Heme binding
Gene Name:
HBG2
Uniprot ID:
P69892
Molecular Weight:
16126.35 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBM
Uniprot ID:
Q6B0K9
Molecular Weight:
15617.97 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HBQ1
Uniprot ID:
P09105
Molecular Weight:
15507.575 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function:
The zeta chain is an alpha-type chain of mammalian embryonic hemoglobin.
Gene Name:
HBZ
Uniprot ID:
P02008
Molecular Weight:
15636.845 Da
References
  1. Keszler A, Piknova B, Schechter AN, Hogg N: The reaction between nitrite and oxyhemoglobin: a mechanistic study. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 11;283(15):9615-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M705630200. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [18203719 ]
  2. Wikipedia. Methemoglobinemia. Last Updated 22 July 2009. [Link]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Molecular Weight:
34750.21 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory16000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Innocenti A, Vullo D, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of isozymes I, II, IV, V, and IX with anions isosteric and isoelectronic with sulfate, nitrate, and carbonate. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Feb 1;15(3):567-71. [15664814 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name:
CA6
Uniprot ID:
P23280
Molecular Weight:
35366.615 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory760 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Bertucci A, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Tambutte S, Zoccola D, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition studies with anions and sulfonamides of a new cytosolic enzyme from the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Jan 15;21(2):710-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.11.124. Epub 2010 Dec 4. [21208801 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular Weight:
29658.235 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory190 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50152970
References
  1. Vullo D, Ruusuvuori E, Kaila K, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the cytosolic human isozyme VII with anions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3139-43. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [16621537 ]