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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-11-29 00:38:09 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:16 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3638
Identification
Common NameDiethyl phthalate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDiethyl phthalate is a phthalate ester. This synthetic substance is commonly used to make plastics more flexible. Products in which it is found include toothbrushes, automobile parts, tools, toys, and food packaging. Diethyl phthalate can be released fairly easily from these products, as it is not part of the chain of chemicals (polymers) that makes up the plastic. Diethyl phthalate is also used in cosmetics, insecticides, and aspirin. Phthalate esters can cause reproductive and developmental toxicity. (6, 1)
Compound Type
  • Aromatic Hydrocarbon
  • Cosmetic Toxin
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
  • Phthalate
  • Plasticizer
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid 1,2-diethyl ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid di-C4-13-alkyl esters
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester
1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester
1,2-Diethyl phthalate
Anozol
Benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester
Di-n-ethyl phthalate
Diethyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
Diethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Diethyl ester
Diethyl ester of 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid
Diethyl o-phenylenediacetate
Diethyl o-phthalate
Diethyl phthalate (NF)
Diethyl phthalic acid
Diethyl-1,2-benzenedicarboxylate
Diethyl-o-phthalate
Diethylphthalate
Ethyl phthalate
Iethylphthalate
Kodaflex dep
Neantine
O-benzenedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester
O-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)benzene
Phthalic acid diethyl ester
Phthalol
Phthalsaeurediaethylester
Placidol e
Solvanol
Unimoll da
Chemical FormulaC12H14O4
Average Molecular Mass222.237 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass222.089 g/mol
CAS Registry Number84-66-2
IUPAC Name1,2-diethyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate
Traditional Namediethyl phthalate
SMILESCCOC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1C(=O)OCC
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H14O4/c1-3-15-11(13)9-7-5-6-8-10(9)12(14)16-4-2/h5-8H,3-4H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=FLKPEMZONWLCSK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentBenzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzoate ester
  • Benzoyl
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-40.5°C
Boiling Point295 °C
Solubility1.08 mg/mL at 25°C
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.385 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.6ALOGPS
logP2.69ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity59.61 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-002b-1900000000-503cf95871c5904aff71View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-004i-0930000000-7086cd5850c044d82e6aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-1900000000-4412971f705146d2fd1fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004j-0910000000-3da30560fd9393855d42View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-004i-0900000000-417398cedfbfc7e8f2c4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-1900000000-40ef56b72df55d26c8ceView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-004i-4900000000-95f8663192d5c11641bbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-002b-1900000000-503cf95871c5904aff71View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-004i-0930000000-7086cd5850c044d82e6aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-1900000000-4412971f705146d2fd1fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-004j-0910000000-3da30560fd9393855d42View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-Bsplash10-004i-0900000000-417398cedfbfc7e8f2c4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0002-1900000000-40ef56b72df55d26c8ceView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00di-7950000000-17006e6795e6cbb4bcf7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00di-9810000000-2c960e7f0228478b0576View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00di-9600000000-4bf131a7544bb092312aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00di-9400000000-2a69601f610fdcd4f477View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-00di-9200000000-19d7f94c7af5b78aca58View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0100-9100000000-744178d47d141e29f10cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-c4fa127cbd14a64144deView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-136161f75c32091bf180View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-8845fcd110c6da94d554View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-70f0da44ec73bc26362cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-a7761aec74b20d2eb58dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-f41b5fc7349bff165407View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-006t-1900000000-fea3964d97a7809c1bcfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00xs-4900000000-ac8b2ce4bcb6a6724cf3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014i-9200000000-4d7079f620d5ad4e4a28View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-06f59bdd387a43c56886View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-23fb179d6576972a10d3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-adbdc25fa7d0fdb4f868View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0590000000-19c4c903328f99b0457dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00ba-0930000000-1634c3a90c28e33287eeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-3900000000-e4a1aeacabe307c97572View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0390000000-6eb1e81609a1c2b23bf8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-2960000000-3743338637ef15aafeeaView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0092-4900000000-9ae1ef130a13535ace14View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0002-2900000000-c0f3a0df2bad7bb63a1aView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (8) ; inhalation (8) ; dermal (8)
Mechanism of ToxicityPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors. They decrease foetal testis testosterone production and reduce the expression of steroidogenic genes by decreasing mRNA expression. Some phthalates have also been shown to reduce the expression of insulin-like peptide 3 (insl3), an important hormone secreted by the Leydig cell necessary for development of the gubernacular ligament. Animal studies have shown that these effects disrupt reproductive development and can cause a number of malformations in affected young. (1)
MetabolismDiethyl phthalate is hydrolyzed to its monoester derivative by diethyl phthalate hydrolase. Once formed, the monoester derivative can be further hydrolyzed in vivo to phthalic acid or conjugated to glucuronide, both of which can then be excreted. The terminal or next-to-last carbon atom in the monoester can also be oxidized to an alcohol, which can be excreted as is or first oxidized to an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid. The monoester and oxidative metabolites are excreted in the urine and faeces. (6, 2)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 8600 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (3) LD50: 2800 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (3) LD50: >20 mL/kg (Dermal, Guinea pig) (7) LC50: >4.64 mg/L over 6 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (7)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesDiethyl phthalate is commonly used to make plastics more flexible. Products in which it is found include toothbrushes, automobile parts, tools, toys, and food packaging. Diethyl phthalate can be released fairly easily from these products, as it is not part of the chain of chemicals (polymers) that makes up the plastic. Diethyl phthalate is also used in cosmetics, insecticides, and aspirin. (6)
Minimum Risk LevelAcute Oral: 7 mg/kg/day (5) Intermediate Oral: 6 mg/kg/day (5)
Health EffectsPhthalate esters are endocrine disruptors. Animal studies have shown that they disrupt reproductive development and can cause a number of malformations in affected young, such as reduced anogenital distance (AGD), cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and reduced fertility. The combination of effects associated with phthalates is called 'phthalate syndrome’. (1)
SymptomsDiethyl phtalate may cause skin and eye irritation. (6)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6781
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL388558
ChemSpider ID13837303
KEGG IDC14175
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID34698
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDiethyl_phthalate
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3638.pdf
General References
  1. Wilson VS, Blystone CR, Hotchkiss AK, Rider CV, Gray LE Jr: Diverse mechanisms of anti-androgen action: impact on male rat reproductive tract development. Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):178-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00861.x. [18315717 ]
  2. Wittassek M, Angerer J: Phthalates: metabolism and exposure. Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):131-8. Epub 2007 Dec 7. [18070048 ]
  3. Brown KL, Marques HM, Jacobsen DW: Heteronuclear NMR studies of cobalamins. 31P NMR observations of cobalamins bound to a haptocorrin from chicken serum. J Biol Chem. 1988 Feb 5;263(4):1872-7. [3338997 ]
  4. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (2003). Concise International Chemical Assessment Document (CICADS) 52: Diethyl Phthalate.
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). Toxicological profile for diethyl phthalate. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  7. EPA/Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (2007). High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program's Robust Summaries and Test Plans: Phthalate Esters Category, Diethyl phthalate (84-66-2). [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Phthalate. Last Updated 22 November 2009. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
References
  1. Mankidy R, Wiseman S, Ma H, Giesy JP: Biological impact of phthalates. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Feb 13;217(1):50-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.11.025. Epub 2012 Dec 7. [23220035 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Toda C, Okamoto Y, Ueda K, Hashizume K, Itoh K, Kojima N: Unequivocal estrogen receptor-binding affinity of phthalate esters featured with ring hydroxylation and proper alkyl chain size. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Nov 1;431(1):16-21. [15464722 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Toda C, Okamoto Y, Ueda K, Hashizume K, Itoh K, Kojima N: Unequivocal estrogen receptor-binding affinity of phthalate esters featured with ring hydroxylation and proper alkyl chain size. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004 Nov 1;431(1):16-21. [15464722 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the ACOX1 and P450 genes. Transactivation activity requires heterodimerization with RXRA and is antagonized by NR2C2. May be required for the propagation of clock information to metabolic pathways regulated by PER2.
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-linoleic acid and eicosapentanoic acid. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to promoter elements of target genes. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Functions as transcription activator for the acyl-CoA oxidase gene. Decreases expression of NPC1L1 once activated by a ligand.
Gene Name:
PPARD
Uniprot ID:
Q03181
Molecular Weight:
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid. RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. The RXR/RAR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, the RXR-RAR heterodimers associate with a multiprotein complex containing transcription corepressors that induce histone acetylation, chromatin condensation and transcriptional suppression. On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. The RXRA/PPARA heterodimer is required for PPARA transcriptional activity on fatty acid oxidation genes such as ACOX1 and the P450 system genes.
Gene Name:
RXRA
Uniprot ID:
P19793
Molecular Weight:
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5 (By similarity). Specifically binds 9-cis retinoic acid (9C-RA).
Gene Name:
RXRB
Uniprot ID:
P28702
Molecular Weight:
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. The high affinity ligand for RXRs is 9-cis retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RXRG
Uniprot ID:
P48443
Molecular Weight:
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Sarath Josh MK, Pradeep S, Vijayalekshmi Amma KS, Balachandran S, Abdul Jaleel UC, Doble M, Spener F, Benjamin S: Phthalates efficiently bind to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor and retinoid X receptor alpha, beta, gamma subtypes: an in silico approach. J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Jul;34(7):754-65. doi: 10.1002/jat.2902. Epub 2013 Jul 11. [23843199 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]