Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:47:31 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4156
Identification
Common NameL-Cysteine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionCysteine is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. Cysteine is unique amongst the twenty natural amino acids as it contains a thiol group. Thiol groups can undergo oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions; when cysteine is oxidized it can form cystine, which is two cysteine residues joined by a disulfide bond. This reaction is reversible: as reduction of this disulphide bond regenerates two cysteine molecules. The disulphide bonds of cystine are crucial to defining the structures of many proteins. Cysteine is often involved in electron-transfer reactions, and help the enzyme catalyze its reaction. Cysteine is also part of the antioxidant glutathione. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a form of cysteine where an acetyl group is attached to cysteine's nitrogen atom and is sold as a dietary supplement. Cysteine is named after cystine, which comes from the Greek word kustis meaning bladder - cystine was first isolated from kidney stones. As cysteine contains a sulphydryl group, it can undergo redox reactions. Oxidation of cysteine can produce a disulfide bond with another thiol, or further oxidation can produce sulphfinic or sulfonic acids. The cysteine thiol group is also a nucleophile and can undergo addition and substitution reactions. Thiol groups become much more reactive when they are ionized, and cysteine residues in proteins have pKa values close to neutrality, so are often in their reactive thiolate form in the cell. The thiol group also has a high affinity for heavy metals and proteins containing cysteine will bind metals such as mercury, lead and cadmium tightly. Due to this ability to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine is an important source of sulfur in human metabolism, and although it is classified as a non-essential amino acid, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine may at some point be recognized as an essential or conditionally essential amino acid. Cysteine is important in energy metabolism. As cystine, it is a structural component of many tissues and hormones. Cysteine has clinical uses ranging from baldness to psoriasis to preventing smoker's hack. In some cases, oral cysteine therapy has proved excellent for treatment of asthmatics, enabling them to stop theophylline and other medications. Cysteine also enhances the effect of topically applied silver, tin and zinc salts in preventing dental cavities. In the future, cysteine may play a role in the treatment of cobalt toxicity, diabetes, psychosis, cancer and seizures.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutraceutical
  • Nutritional Support
  • Organic Compound
  • Supplement
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
(2R)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
(2R)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoate
(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
(R)-(+)-cysteine
(R)-2-amino-3-mercapto-Propanoate
(R)-2-amino-3-mercapto-Propanoic acid
(R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
(R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
(R)-cysteine
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionate
2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
3-Mercapto-L-Alanine
Acetylcysteine
alpha-Amino-beta-thiolpropionic acid
B-Mercaptoalanine
beta-Mercaptoalanine
Carbocysteine
Cisteina
Cisteinum
Cys
Cystein
Cysteine
Cysteinum
Free cysteine
Half-cystine
L Cysteine
L-(+)-Cysteine
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoate
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
L-Cys
L-Cystein
Polycysteine
Thioserine
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2S
Average Molecular Mass121.158 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass121.020 g/mol
CAS Registry Number52-90-4
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
Traditional NameL-cysteine
SMILES[H][C@](N)(CS)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H7NO2S/c4-2(1-7)3(5)6/h2,7H,1,4H2,(H,5,6)/t2-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=XUJNEKJLAYXESH-REOHCLBHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cysteine and derivatives. Cysteine and derivatives are compounds containing cysteine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of cysteine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentCysteine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cysteine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino acid
  • Alkylthiol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Cysteine MetabolismSMP00013 map00270
Glutathione MetabolismSMP00015 map00480
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004 map00260
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033 map00270
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisSMP00027 map00770
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismSMP00021 map00430
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019 Not Available
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencySMP00501 Not Available
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencySMP00183 Not Available
HypermethioninemiaSMP00341 Not Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point240 dec°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility2.77E+005 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP-2.49
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.72ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity28.22 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.41 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00kb-0950000000-df7e91c95b610ff21c79View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00kb-0940000000-aefe34765fb447090a23View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00kb-0970000000-10a155c40ea499023052View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0940000000-037a3a34651c3154b3b3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00di-9850000000-118c43e33861a6baa8d2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014j-0690100000-0aeb88fd507505e6b718View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0950000000-df7e91c95b610ff21c79View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0940000000-aefe34765fb447090a23View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0970000000-10a155c40ea499023052View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kb-0940000000-037a3a34651c3154b3b3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uk9-5619100000-8cb2558373966174ced3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9850000000-118c43e33861a6baa8d2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gi0-0960000000-03b2097de6f9637d29cbView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004l-9100000000-4553906a941a5e87ec97View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-9200000000-cfaf705cd0452d428454View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00b9-9600000000-374c5872d68662832769View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-ddbd3df6b8dbb280ffbaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-320a2c77443b80ebf733View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0089-0900000000-9dcd3d757c5cd11eb18eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-3900000000-212e081fe83ad70de0adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-2eb01f41c225f614db24View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-a19834eb7cb9f211fdf2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-2458f2587761e779ed93View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-77e590f0ed26f69b31c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-3900000000-7b1857997392b006b95fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-3900000000-bc268c27ed5706a4bbd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-4573390bccc238e3c91bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-3900000000-212e081fe83ad70de0adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0udi-3900000000-7b1857997392b006b95fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00b9-9600000000-4352a7b437c34c04d9f0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-9200000000-7b4cd034c717561c61ddView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9000000000-8f351cbca6ffed356a9bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-6900000000-51ba0df80cc33423420bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0079-9400000000-4aa2b707c391d5838d29View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-95c7672c7836c0fc51c9View in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as cysteine are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (2). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (3). Although classified as a non-essential amino acid cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine can usually be synthesized by the human body under normal physiological conditions if a sufficient quantity of methionine is available. Due to the ability of thiols to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine's antioxidant properties are typically expressed in the tripeptide glutathione, which occurs in humans as well as other organisms. The systemic availability of oral glutathione (GSH) is negligible; so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine are readily available in the diets of most industrialized countries, but the availability of cysteine can be the limiting substrate. Cysteine is also an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron-sulfur clusters and in nitrogenase is extracted from cysteine, which is converted to alanine in the process. In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, cysteine is one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. Its use or purpose, however, is unknown, like most cigarette additives. Its inclusion in cigarettes could offer two benefits: Acting as an expectorant, since smoking increases mucus production in the lungs; and increasing the beneficial antioxidant glutathione (which is diminished in smokers).
MetabolismUremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the prevention of liver damage and kidney damage associated with overdoses of acetaminophen
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00151
HMDB IDHMDB00574
PubChem Compound ID5862
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL863
ChemSpider ID5653
KEGG IDC00097
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17561
BioCyc IDCYS
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDCYS
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkL-Cysteine
References
Synthesis Reference

Alfred Maierhofer, Hans Wagner, “Process for the production of high purity S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine.” U.S. Patent US4129593, issued May, 1965.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  4. Bulaj G, Kortemme T, Goldenberg DP: Ionization-reactivity relationships for cysteine thiols in polypeptides. Biochemistry. 1998 Jun 23;37(25):8965-72. [9636038 ]
  5. Baker DH, Czarnecki-Maulden GL: Pharmacologic role of cysteine in ameliorating or exacerbating mineral toxicities. J Nutr. 1987 Jun;117(6):1003-10. [3298579 ]
  6. Sandmann J, Schwedhelm KS, Tsikas D: Specific transport of S-nitrosocysteine in human red blood cells: Implications for formation of S-nitrosothiols and transport of NO bioactivity within the vasculature. FEBS Lett. 2005 Aug 1;579(19):4119-24. [16023102 ]
  7. Paivalainen S, Suokas M, Lahti O, Heape AM: Degraded myelin-associated glycoprotein (dMAG) formation from pure human brain myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is not mediated by calpain or cathepsin L-like activities. J Neurochem. 2003 Feb;84(3):533-45. [12558973 ]
  8. Iyer S, Leonidas DD, Swaminathan GJ, Maglione D, Battisti M, Tucci M, Persico MG, Acharya KR: The crystal structure of human placenta growth factor-1 (PlGF-1), an angiogenic protein, at 2.0 A resolution. J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr 13;276(15):12153-61. Epub 2000 Nov 7. [11069911 ]
  9. Nishiya Y, Yoshida Y, Yoshimura M, Fukamachi H, Nakano Y: Homogeneous enzymatic assay for L-cysteine with betaC-S lyase. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Nov;69(11):2244-6. [16306712 ]
  10. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
  11. Santamaria I, Velasco G, Cazorla M, Fueyo A, Campo E, Lopez-Otin C: Cathepsin L2, a novel human cysteine proteinase produced by breast and colorectal carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1998 Apr 15;58(8):1624-30. [9563472 ]
  12. Eriksson A, Tohonen V, Wedell A, Nordqvist K: Isolation of the human testatin gene and analysis in patients with abnormal gonadal development. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002 Jan;8(1):8-15. [11756564 ]
  13. Kaminska J, Wisniewska A, Koscielak J: Chemical modifications of alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase define amino acid residues of catalytic importance. Biochimie. 2003 Mar-Apr;85(3-4):303-10. [12770769 ]
  14. Li Y, Gamper N, Shapiro MS: Single-channel analysis of KCNQ K+ channels reveals the mechanism of augmentation by a cysteine-modifying reagent. J Neurosci. 2004 Jun 2;24(22):5079-90. [15175377 ]
  15. Lindzen M, Gottschalk KE, Fuzesi M, Garty H, Karlish SJ: Structural interactions between FXYD proteins and Na+,K+-ATPase: alpha/beta/FXYD subunit stoichiometry and cross-linking. J Biol Chem. 2006 Mar 3;281(9):5947-55. Epub 2005 Dec 21. [16373350 ]
  16. Norris FA, Wilson MP, Wallis TS, Galyov EE, Majerus PW: SopB, a protein required for virulence of Salmonella dublin, is an inositol phosphate phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 24;95(24):14057-9. [9826652 ]
  17. Kersemans V, Cornelissen B, Kersemans K, Bauwens M, Achten E, Dierckx RA, Mertens J, Slegers G: In vivo characterization of 123/125I-2-iodo-L-phenylalanine in an R1M rhabdomyosarcoma athymic mouse model as a potential tumor tracer for SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2005 Mar;46(3):532-9. [15750170 ]
  18. Foss CA, Mease RC, Fan H, Wang Y, Ravert HT, Dannals RF, Olszewski RT, Heston WD, Kozikowski AP, Pomper MG: Radiolabeled small-molecule ligands for prostate-specific membrane antigen: in vivo imaging in experimental models of prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jun 1;11(11):4022-8. [15930336 ]
  19. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
  20. Kozaki K, Miyaishi O, Asai N, Iida K, Sakata K, Hayashi M, Nishida T, Matsuyama M, Shimizu S, Kaneda T, et al.: Tissue distribution of ERp61 and association of its increased expression with IgG production in hybridoma cells. Exp Cell Res. 1994 Aug;213(2):348-58. [8050492 ]
  21. Amberger VR, Hensel T, Ogata N, Schwab ME: Spreading and migration of human glioma and rat C6 cells on central nervous system myelin in vitro is correlated with tumor malignancy and involves a metalloproteolytic activity. Cancer Res. 1998 Jan 1;58(1):149-58. [9426071 ]
  22. Zhang JT, Li QX, Wang D, Zhu ZL, Yang YH, Cui DS, Wang MW, Sun XF: Up-regulation of PINCH in the stroma of oral squamous cell carcinoma predicts nodal metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2005 Dec;14(6):1519-22. [16273248 ]
  23. Taveau M, Bourg N, Sillon G, Roudaut C, Bartoli M, Richard I: Calpain 3 is activated through autolysis within the active site and lyses sarcomeric and sarcolemmal components. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Dec;23(24):9127-35. [14645524 ]
  24. Yu FH, Westenbroek RE, Silos-Santiago I, McCormick KA, Lawson D, Ge P, Ferriera H, Lilly J, DiStefano PS, Catterall WA, Scheuer T, Curtis R: Sodium channel beta4, a new disulfide-linked auxiliary subunit with similarity to beta2. J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 20;23(20):7577-85. [12930796 ]
  25. Naisbitt DJ, Vilar FJ, Stalford AC, Wilkins EG, Pirmohamed M, Park BK: Plasma cysteine deficiency and decreased reduction of nitrososulfamethoxazole with HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Dec 10;16(18):1929-38. [11153075 ]
  26. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Hydro-lyase catalyzing the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, where the hydroxyl group of L-serine is displaced by L-homocysteine in a beta-replacement reaction to form L-cystathionine, the precursor of L-cysteine. This catabolic route allows the elimination of L-methionine and the toxic metabolite L-homocysteine (PubMed:23981774, PubMed:20506325, PubMed:23974653). Also involved in the production of hydrogen sulfide, a gasotransmitter with signaling and cytoprotective effects on neurons (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CBS
Uniprot ID:
P35520
Molecular Weight:
60586.05 Da
References
  1. Zhang H, Zhi L, Moore PK, Bhatia M: Role of hydrogen sulfide in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006 Jun;290(6):L1193-201. Epub 2006 Jan 20. [16428267 ]
  2. Lowicka E, Beltowski J: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - the third gas of interest for pharmacologists. Pharmacol Rep. 2007 Jan-Feb;59(1):4-24. [17377202 ]
  3. Tamizhselvi R, Moore PK, Bhatia M: Hydrogen sulfide acts as a mediator of inflammation in acute pancreatitis: in vitro studies using isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;11(2):315-26. [17488480 ]
  4. Oh GS, Pae HO, Lee BS, Kim BN, Kim JM, Kim HR, Jeon SB, Jeon WK, Chae HJ, Chung HT: Hydrogen sulfide inhibits nitric oxide production and nuclear factor-kappaB via heme oxygenase-1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Jul 1;41(1):106-19. Epub 2006 Apr 25. [16781459 ]
  5. Bhatia M, Wong FL, Fu D, Lau HY, Moochhala SM, Moore PK: Role of hydrogen sulfide in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. FASEB J. 2005 Apr;19(6):623-5. Epub 2005 Jan 25. [15671155 ]
  6. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  7. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the removal of elemental sulfur from cysteine to produce alanine. It supplies the inorganic sulfur for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. May be involved in the biosynthesis of molybdenum cofactor.
Gene Name:
NFS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y697
Molecular Weight:
50195.21 Da
References
  1. You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z: A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):6126-33. Epub 2007 May 1. [17469805 ]
  2. Ding H, Harrison K, Lu J: Thioredoxin reductase system mediates iron binding in IscA and iron delivery for the iron-sulfur cluster assembly in IscU. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 26;280(34):30432-7. Epub 2005 Jun 28. [15985427 ]
  3. Ding B, Smith ES, Ding H: Mobilization of the iron centre in IscA for the iron-sulphur cluster assembly in IscU. Biochem J. 2005 Aug 1;389(Pt 3):797-802. [15828873 ]
  4. Yang J, Bitoun JP, Ding H: Interplay of IscA and IscU in biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 22;281(38):27956-63. Epub 2006 Jul 27. [16877383 ]
  5. Layer G, Ollagnier-de Choudens S, Sanakis Y, Fontecave M: Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis: characterization of Escherichia coli CYaY as an iron donor for the assembly of [2Fe-2S] clusters in the scaffold IscU. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16256-63. Epub 2006 Apr 9. [16603772 ]
  6. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  7. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CDO-1
Uniprot ID:
Q16857
Molecular Weight:
6589.415 Da
References
  1. Jin HF, DU SX, Zhao X, Zhang SQ, Tian Y, Bu DF, Tang CS, DU JB: [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Aug 18;39(4):423-5. [17657274 ]
  2. Roopnarinesingh ES, Steventon GB, Harris RM, Waring RH, Mitchell SC: Induction of cysteine dioxygenase activity by oral administration of cysteine analogues to the rat: implications for drug efficacy and safety. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2005;21(2):75-86. [16355974 ]
  3. Ye S, Wu X, Wei L, Tang D, Sun P, Bartlam M, Rao Z: An insight into the mechanism of human cysteine dioxygenase. Key roles of the thioether-bonded tyrosine-cysteine cofactor. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 2;282(5):3391-402. Epub 2006 Nov 29. [17135237 ]
  4. McCoy JG, Bailey LJ, Bitto E, Bingman CA, Aceti DJ, Fox BG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure and mechanism of mouse cysteine dioxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3084-9. Epub 2006 Feb 21. [16492780 ]
  5. Pierce BS, Gardner JD, Bailey LJ, Brunold TC, Fox BG: Characterization of the nitrosyl adduct of substrate-bound mouse cysteine dioxygenase by electron paramagnetic resonance: electronic structure of the active site and mechanistic implications. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 24;46(29):8569-78. Epub 2007 Jun 28. [17602574 ]
  6. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  7. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CSAD
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y600
Molecular Weight:
55022.79 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Chan-Palay V, Lin CT, Palay S, Yamamoto M, Wu JY: Taurine in the mammalian cerebellum: demonstration by autoradiography with [3H]taurine and immunocytochemistry with antibodies against the taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine-sulfinic acid decarboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Apr;79(8):2695-9. [6953423 ]
  4. Guion-Rain M-C, Portemer C, Chatagner F: Rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase: purification, new appraisal of the molecular weight and determination of catalytic properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Mar 28;384(1):265-76. [236774 ]
  5. Daniels KM, Stipanuk MH: The effect of dietary cysteine level on cysteine metabolism in rats. J Nutr. 1982 Nov;112(11):2130-41. [7131091 ]
  6. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  7. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Ferrous iron binding
Specific Function:
Initiates several important metabolic pathways related to pyruvate and several sulfurate compounds including sulfate, hypotaurine and taurine. Critical regulator of cellular cysteine concentrations. Has an important role in maintaining the hepatic concentation of intracellular free cysteine within a proper narrow range.
Gene Name:
CDO1
Uniprot ID:
Q16878
Molecular Weight:
22971.745 Da
References
  1. Roopnarinesingh ES, Steventon GB, Harris RM, Waring RH, Mitchell SC: Induction of cysteine dioxygenase activity by oral administration of cysteine analogues to the rat: implications for drug efficacy and safety. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2005;21(2):75-86. [16355974 ]
  2. McCoy JG, Bailey LJ, Bitto E, Bingman CA, Aceti DJ, Fox BG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure and mechanism of mouse cysteine dioxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3084-9. Epub 2006 Feb 21. [16492780 ]
  3. Ye S, Wu X, Wei L, Tang D, Sun P, Bartlam M, Rao Z: An insight into the mechanism of human cysteine dioxygenase. Key roles of the thioether-bonded tyrosine-cysteine cofactor. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 2;282(5):3391-402. Epub 2006 Nov 29. [17135237 ]
  4. Jin HF, DU SX, Zhao X, Zhang SQ, Tian Y, Bu DF, Tang CS, DU JB: [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Aug 18;39(4):423-5. [17657274 ]
  5. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  6. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the last step in the trans-sulfuration pathway from methionine to cysteine. Has broad substrate specificity. Converts cystathionine to cysteine, ammonia and 2-oxobutanoate. Converts two cysteine molecules to lanthionine and hydrogen sulfide. Can also accept homocysteine as substrate. Specificity depends on the levels of the endogenous substrates. Generates the endogenous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and so contributes to the regulation of blood pressure. Acts as a cysteine-protein sulfhydrase by mediating sulfhydration of target proteins: sulfhydration consists of converting -SH groups into -SSH on specific cysteine residues of target proteins such as GAPDH, PTPN1 and NF-kappa-B subunit RELA, thereby regulating their function.
Gene Name:
CTH
Uniprot ID:
P32929
Molecular Weight:
44507.64 Da
References
  1. Fiorucci S, Antonelli E, Mencarelli A, Orlandi S, Renga B, Rizzo G, Distrutti E, Shah V, Morelli A: The third gas: H2S regulates perfusion pressure in both the isolated and perfused normal rat liver and in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005 Sep;42(3):539-48. [16108046 ]
  2. Zhang H, Zhi L, Moore PK, Bhatia M: Role of hydrogen sulfide in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006 Jun;290(6):L1193-201. Epub 2006 Jan 20. [16428267 ]
  3. Wallace JL, Dicay M, McKnight W, Martin GR: Hydrogen sulfide enhances ulcer healing in rats. FASEB J. 2007 Dec;21(14):4070-6. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [17634391 ]
  4. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  5. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a scavenger of glutamate in brain neuroprotection. The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis. Using L-cysteine as substrate, regulates levels of mercaptopyruvate, an important source of hydrogen sulfide. Mercaptopyruvate is converted into H(2)S via the action of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). Hydrogen sulfide is an important synaptic modulator and neuroprotectant in the brain.
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular Weight:
46247.14 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CARS
Uniprot ID:
P49589
Molecular Weight:
85472.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLC
Uniprot ID:
P48506
Molecular Weight:
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Ashida H, Sawa Y, Shibata H: Cloning, biochemical and phylogenetic characterizations of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005 Apr;46(4):557-62. Epub 2005 Feb 2. [15695431 ]
  2. Srivastava S, Chan C: Application of metabolic flux analysis to identify the mechanisms of free fatty acid toxicity to human hepatoma cell line. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008 Feb 1;99(2):399-410. [17615559 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HA77
Molecular Weight:
62223.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Thiamine uptake transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates high affinity thiamine uptake, propably via a proton anti-port mechanism. Has no folate transport activity.
Gene Name:
SLC19A3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZV2
Molecular Weight:
55664.265 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  4. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.
Gene Name:
SLC7A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9UPY5
Molecular Weight:
55422.44 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory59 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50109609
IC50116 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50109609
References
  1. Patel SA, Rajale T, O'Brien E, Burkhart DJ, Nelson JK, Twamley B, Blumenfeld A, Szabon-Watola MI, Gerdes JM, Bridges RJ, Natale NR: Isoxazole analogues bind the system xc- transporter: structure-activity relationship and pharmacophore model. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Jan 1;18(1):202-13. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.11.001. Epub 2009 Nov 10. [19932968 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLM
Uniprot ID:
P48507
Molecular Weight:
30726.745 Da
References
  1. Ashida H, Sawa Y, Shibata H: Cloning, biochemical and phylogenetic characterizations of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005 Apr;46(4):557-62. Epub 2005 Feb 2. [15695431 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
P48637
Molecular Weight:
52384.325 Da
References
  1. Tanaka T, Halicka HD, Huang X, Traganos F, Darzynkiewicz Z: Constitutive histone H2AX phosphorylation and ATM activation, the reporters of DNA damage by endogenous oxidants. Cell Cycle. 2006 Sep;5(17):1940-5. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [16940754 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Motor protein required for establishing a bipolar spindle. Blocking of KIF11 prevents centrosome migration and arrest cells in mitosis with monoastral microtubule arrays.
Gene Name:
KIF11
Uniprot ID:
P52732
Molecular Weight:
119158.025 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>63 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50109609
References
  1. Ogo N, Oishi S, Matsuno K, Sawada J, Fujii N, Asai A: Synthesis and biological evaluation of L-cysteine derivatives as mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jul 15;17(14):3921-4. Epub 2007 May 3. [17524640 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the cellular defense against the biological effects of O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) in DNA. Repairs alkylated guanine in DNA by stoichiometrically transferring the alkyl group at the O-6 position to a cysteine residue in the enzyme. This is a suicide reaction: the enzyme is irreversibly inactivated.
Gene Name:
MGMT
Uniprot ID:
P16455
Molecular Weight:
21645.83 Da
References
  1. Niture SK, Velu CS, Smith QR, Bhat GJ, Srivenugopal KS: Increased expression of the MGMT repair protein mediated by cysteine prodrugs and chemopreventative natural products in human lymphocytes and tumor cell lines. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Feb;28(2):378-89. Epub 2006 Aug 31. [16950796 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular Weight:
53075.045 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory46000 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50109609
References
  1. Thondorf I, Voigt V, Schafer S, Gebauer S, Zebisch K, Laug L, Brandsch M: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of substrates of the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (hPAT1). Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Nov 1;19(21):6409-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.08.058. Epub 2011 Sep 5. [21955456 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]