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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 06:35:23 UTC
Update Date2018-03-21 17:46:20 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4366
Identification
Common NameL-Phenylalanine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPhenylalanine is an essential amino acid and the precursor of the amino acid tyrosine. Like tyrosine, phenylalanine is also a precursor for catecholamines including tyramine, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Catecholamines are neurotransmitters that act as adrenalin-like substances. Interestingly, several psychotropic drugs (mescaline, morphine, codeine, and papaverine) also have phenylalanine as a constituent. Phenylalanine is highly concentrated in the human brain and plasma. Normal metabolism of phenylalanine requires biopterin, iron, niacin, vitamin B6, copper, and vitamin C. An average adult ingests 5 g of phenylalanine per day and may optimally need up to 8 g daily. Phenylalanine is highly concentrated in a number of high protein foods, such as meat, cottage cheese, and wheat germ. An additional dietary source of phenylalanine is artificial sweeteners containing aspartame. As a general rule, aspartame should be avoided by phenylketonurics and pregnant women. When present in sufficiently high levels, phenylalanine can act as a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin is a compound that disrupts or attacks neural cells and neural tissue. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of phenylalanine are associated with at least five inborn errors of metabolism, including Hartnup disorder, hyperphenylalaninemia due to guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiency, phenylketonuria (PKU), tyrosinemia type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome), and tyrosinemia type III (TYRO3). Phenylketonurics have elevated serum plasma levels of phenylalanine up to 400 times normal. High plasma concentrations of phenylalanine influence the blood-brain barrier transport of large neutral amino acids. The high plasma phenylalanine concentrations increase phenylalanine entry into the brain and restrict the entry of other large neutral amino acids (PMID: 19191004). Phenylalanine has been found to interfere with different cerebral enzyme systems. Untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) can lead to intellectual disability, seizures, behavioural problems, and mental disorders. It may also result in a musty smell and lighter skin. Classic PKU dramatically affects myelination and white matter tracts in untreated infants; this may be one major cause of neurological disorders associated with phenylketonuria. Mild phenylketonuria can act as an unsuspected cause of hyperactivity, learning problems, and other developmental problems in children. It has been recently suggested that PKU may resemble amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, due to the formation of toxic amyloid-like assemblies of phenylalanine (PMID: 22706200). Phenylalanine also has some potential benefits. Phenylalanine can act as an effective pain reliever. Its use in premenstrual syndrome and Parkinson's may enhance the effects of acupuncture and electric transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS). Phenylalanine and tyrosine, like L-DOPA, produce a catecholamine-like effect. Phenylalanine is better absorbed than tyrosine and may cause fewer headaches. Low phenylalanine diets have been prescribed for certain cancers with mixed results. For instance, some tumours use more phenylalanine than others (particularly melatonin-producing tumours called melanomas).
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Amino Acid, Essential
  • Animal Toxin
  • Dietary Supplement
  • Drug
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Micronutrient
  • Natural Compound
  • Nutraceutical
  • Organic Compound
  • Supplement
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(-)-beta-Phenylalanine
(L)-Phenylalanine
(S)-(-)-Phenylalanine
(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoate
(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
(S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionate
(S)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid
(S)-alpha-Amino-benzenepropanoate
(S)-alpha-Amino-benzenepropanoic acid
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-phenylpropionate
(S)-alpha-Amino-beta-phenylpropionic acid
(S)-alpha-Aminobenzenepropanoate
(S)-alpha-Aminobenzenepropanoic acid
(S)-alpha-Aminohydrocinnamate
(S)-alpha-Aminohydrocinnamic acid
(S)-Phenylalanine
3-Phenyl-L-alanine
alpha-Aminohydrocinnamate
alpha-Aminohydrocinnamic acid
beta-Phenyl-alpha-alanine
beta-Phenyl-L-alanine
beta-Phenylalanine
F
L-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionate
L-2-Amino-3-phenylpropionic acid
Phe
Phenyl-Alanine
Phenylalamine
Phenylalanine
β-phenyl-L-alanine
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO2
Average Molecular Mass165.189 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass165.079 g/mol
CAS Registry Number63-91-2
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
Traditional NameL-phenylalanine
SMILES[H][C@](N)(CC1=CC=CC=C1)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C9H11NO2/c10-8(9(11)12)6-7-4-2-1-3-5-7/h1-5,8H,6,10H2,(H,11,12)/t8-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=COLNVLDHVKWLRT-QMMMGPOBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. Phenylalanine and derivatives are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • All Tissues
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00008 map00360
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019 Not Available
Hartnup DisorderSMP00189 Not Available
Hyperphenylalaniemia due to guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiencySMP00487 Not Available
PhenylketonuriaSMP00206 Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)SMP00369 Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)SMP00370 Not Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point283 dec°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility2.69E+004 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP-1.38
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.14 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.4ALOGPS
logP-1.2ChemAxon
logS-1.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.45ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity45.12 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.03 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0fr6-1930000000-a37fbccaf826443ef70cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-1940000000-537e2725d621246630c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9630000000-ead0919f9a19d2352d80JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-00di-2900000000-cb2d6dc4bf9515150328JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-014l-2960000000-f77489792f0652dd5613JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-0970000000-792b341dd28b9e30bac2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr6-1930000000-a37fbccaf826443ef70cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-1940000000-537e2725d621246630c1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQ (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ul9-3659000000-b85be4e71798e2fdc47bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9630000000-ead0919f9a19d2352d80JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-2900000000-cb2d6dc4bf9515150328JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014l-2960000000-f77489792f0652dd5613JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9600000000-df38fcb743d8f44fb876JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-7900000000-f21569d2ec75b88e1bdaJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-0f3b994108b8a9fd2a56JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0gb9-2900000000-c14d44c8a67621757f3dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9300000000-08c642dab7f49c00da43JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-7dce1e473976f7d2143eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0f6x-9600000000-711557391093b0d8500aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-0c25a5c116eac7bb059bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-2804f79084ac4e67e155JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-8a71bb1f8424064d7cafJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0f6x-9800000000-e027ff6bb67ce55e80a5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-9f6185e9c7d54189f369JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-df5f72fe2bba91742427JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0ir3-0988735721-bac229222fe7b52812a8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-453477dec847a3672ffeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0010963000-079a66bf710f6778bcebJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0000009000-62dbe98de4ecde484fb3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-80558c17dc1845663c85JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-3900000000-e1ee31d41e48824e84b7JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0f6x-9500000000-cc11290a37615f24e16eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1a6020bce0e1a9a14832JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-38c044a112152626962eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-9b908abfcb63153d60b3JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-1900000000-3ba5964e151bb1d56188JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-2900000000-20a7d24da0281f5b3b78JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-5900000000-1800642a835b49f3398aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0fb9-9300000000-f262384c85fb843f8a11JSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dl-9300000000-4782928378caea601f9bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureAbsorbed from the small intestine by a sodium dependent active transport process.
Mechanism of ToxicityExtremely high serum levels of phenylalanine are found in patients with the inborn error of metabolism (IEM) called Phenylketonuria (PKU). At pathological concentrations typical of PKU, phenylalanine self-assembles into fibrils with amyloid-like morphology and well-ordered electron diffraction. These fibrils and their resulting amyloid deposits that localize to the brain appear to be partially responsible for the neural tissue damage seen in PKU patients (3). It has also been suggested that very high plasma phenylalanine concentrations can increase phenylalanine entry into brain and thereby restrict the entry of other large neutral amino acids. The lack of large neutral amino acids may lead to disturbed cerebral protein synthesis, which is particularly important for young children (1). The mechanism of L-phenylalanine's putative antidepressant activity may be accounted for by its precursor role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. Elevated brain norepinephrine and dopamine levels are thought to be associated with antidepressant effects.
The mechanism of L-phenylalanine's possible antivitiligo activity is not well understood. It is thought that L-phenylalanine may stimulate the production of melanin in the affected skin.
MetabolismHepatic. L-phenylalanine that is not metabolized in the liver is distributed via the systemic circulation to the various tissues of the body, where it undergoes metabolic reactions similar to those that take place in the liver.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesL-phenylalanine may be helpful in some with depression. It may also be useful in the treatment of vitiligo. There is some evidence that L-phenylalanine may exacerbate tardive dyskinesia in some schizophrenic patients and in some who have used neuroleptic drugs.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsPhenylalanine is neurotoxic. Chronic exposure to very high levels of phenylalanine in the blood (as found in phenylketonuria, or PKU) can lead to a build up in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain, leading to seizures, organ damage and unusual posture. High phenylalnine levels are particularly dangerous for children, because it retards brain development and can cause serious learning difficulties. Complications of PKU include severe intellectual disability, brain function abnormalities, microcephaly, mood disorders, irregular motor functioning, and behavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chronically high levels of phenylalanine are associated with at least four other inborn errors of metabolism including: Hartnup Disorder, Hyperphenylalaniemia due to guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiency, Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome) and Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3).
SymptomsComplications of PKU include severe intellectual disability, brain function abnormalities, microcephaly, mood disorders, irregular motor functioning, and behavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
TreatmentIf PKU is diagnosed early, an affected newborn can grow up with normal brain development, but only by managing and controlling phenylalanine levels through diet, or a combination of diet and medication. The diet requires severely restricting or eliminating foods high in phenylalanine, such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs, nuts, cheese, legumes, milk and other dairy products. Starchy foods, such as potatoes, bread, pasta, and corn, must be monitored. Optimal health ranges (or "target ranges") of serum phenylalanine are between 120 and 360 µmol/L, and aimed to be achieved during at least the first 10 years of life. Recently it has been found that a chiral isomer of L-phenylalanine (called D-phenylalanine) actually arrests the fibril formation by L-phenylalanine and gives rise to flakes. These flakes do not propagate further and prevent amyloid formation by L-phenylalanine. D-phenylalanine may qualify as a therapeutic molecule in phenylketonuria (2).
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00120
HMDB IDHMDB00159
PubChem Compound ID6140
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL301523
ChemSpider ID5910
KEGG IDC00079
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID17295
BioCyc IDPHE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDPHE
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkL-Phenylalanine
References
Synthesis Reference

Gerald L. Bachman, “Recovery of L-phenylalanine and L-aspartic acid during preparation of .alpha.-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester.” U.S. Patent US4348317, issued January, 1967.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. van Spronsen FJ, Hoeksma M, Reijngoud DJ: Brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria: is phenylalanine toxicity the only possible cause? J Inherit Metab Dis. 2009 Feb;32(1):46-51. doi: 10.1007/s10545-008-0946-2. Epub 2009 Jan 13. [19191004 ]
  2. Singh V, Rai RK, Arora A, Sinha N, Thakur AK: Therapeutic implication of L-phenylalanine aggregation mechanism and its modulation by D-phenylalanine in phenylketonuria. Sci Rep. 2014 Jan 27;4:3875. doi: 10.1038/srep03875. [24464217 ]
  3. Adler-Abramovich L, Vaks L, Carny O, Trudler D, Magno A, Caflisch A, Frenkel D, Gazit E: Phenylalanine assembly into toxic fibrils suggests amyloid etiology in phenylketonuria. Nat Chem Biol. 2012 Aug;8(8):701-6. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.1002. Epub 2012 Jun 17. [22706200 ]
  4. Deng C, Shang C, Hu Y, Zhang X: Rapid diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other aminoacidemias by quantitative analysis of amino acids in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Jul 25;775(1):115-20. [12101068 ]
  5. Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. [15911239 ]
  6. Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. [12297216 ]
  7. Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. [14992292 ]
  8. Sjoberg S, Eriksson M, Nordin C: L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study. Eur J Endocrinol. 1998 Nov;139(5):493-7. [9849813 ]
  9. Doellgast GJ, Meis PJ: Use of specific inhibitors to disciminate alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes originating from human liver, placenta and intestine: absence of meconial alkaline phosphatase in maternal serum. Clin Chem. 1979 Jul;25(7):1230-3. [455643 ]
  10. Wannemacher RW Jr, Klainer AS, Dinterman RE, Beisel WR: The significance and mechanism of an increased serum phenylalanine-tyrosine ratio during infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Sep;29(9):997-1006. [822705 ]
  11. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  12. Kersemans V, Cornelissen B, Kersemans K, Bauwens M, Achten E, Dierckx RA, Mertens J, Slegers G: In vivo characterization of 123/125I-2-iodo-L-phenylalanine in an R1M rhabdomyosarcoma athymic mouse model as a potential tumor tracer for SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2005 Mar;46(3):532-9. [15750170 ]
  13. Klassen P, Furst P, Schulz C, Mazariegos M, Solomons NW: Plasma free amino acid concentrations in healthy Guatemalan adults and in patients with classic dengue. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;73(3):647-52. [11237944 ]
  14. Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. [6696735 ]
  15. Engelborghs S, Marescau B, De Deyn PP: Amino acids and biogenic amines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Res. 2003 Aug;28(8):1145-50. [12834252 ]
  16. Hagenfeldt L, Bjerkenstedt L, Edman G, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA: Amino acids in plasma and CSF and monoamine metabolites in CSF: interrelationship in healthy subjects. J Neurochem. 1984 Mar;42(3):833-7. [6198473 ]
  17. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P07101
Molecular Weight:
58599.545 Da
References
  1. Fukami MH, Haavik J, Flatmark T: Phenylalanine as substrate for tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Biochem J. 1990 Jun 1;268(2):525-8. [1973034 ]
  2. Ogawa S, Ichinose H: Effect of metals and phenylalanine on the activity of human tryptophan hydroxylase-2: comparison with that on tyrosine hydroxylase activity. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jul 3;401(3):261-5. Epub 2006 Apr 11. [16581181 ]
  3. Schallreuter KU, Kothari S, Hasse S, Kauser S, Lindsey NJ, Gibbons NC, Hibberts N, Wood JM: In situ and in vitro evidence for DCoH/HNF-1 alpha transcription of tyrosinase in human skin melanocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Feb 7;301(2):610-6. [12565907 ]
  4. McQuade PS, Juorio AV: The effect of various amino acids and drugs on the para- and meta-hydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations in the mouse caudate nucleus. Neurochem Res. 1983 Jul;8(7):903-12. [6621777 ]
  5. Fusetti F, Erlandsen H, Flatmark T, Stevens RC: Structure of tetrameric human phenylalanine hydroxylase and its implications for phenylketonuria. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16962-7. [9642259 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine. L-alanine is transported at physiological concentrations. Plays a role in basolateral (re)absorption of neutral amino acids. Involved in the uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, and hence plays a role in metal ion homeostasis and toxicity. Involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L-nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. Plays an essential role in the reabsorption of neutral amino acids from the epithelial cells to the bloodstream in the kidney.
Gene Name:
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHI5
Molecular Weight:
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Shennan DB, Calvert DT, Travers MT, Kudo Y, Boyd CA: A study of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine transport in the perfused rat mammary gland: possible involvement of LAT1 and LAT2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Aug 19;1564(1):133-9. [12101005 ]
  2. Rossier G, Meier C, Bauch C, Summa V, Sordat B, Verrey F, Kuhn LC: LAT2, a new basolateral 4F2hc/CD98-associated amino acid transporter of kidney and intestine. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 3;274(49):34948-54. [10574970 ]
  3. Babu E, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Kim DK, Iribe Y, Tangtrongsup S, Jutabha P, Li Y, Ahmed N, Sakamoto S, Anzai N, Nagamori S, Endou H: Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid transporters. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 31;278(44):43838-45. Epub 2003 Aug 20. [12930836 ]
  4. Satoh S, Kimura T, Toda M, Maekawa M, Ono S, Narita H, Miyazaki H, Murayama T, Nomura Y: Involvement of L-type-like amino acid transporters in S-nitrosocysteine-stimulated noradrenaline release in the rat hippocampus. J Neurochem. 1997 Nov;69(5):2197-205. [9349567 ]
  5. Nemoto T, Shimma N, Horie S, Saito T, Okuma Y, Nomura Y, Murayama T: Involvement of the system L amino acid transporter on uptake of S-nitroso-L-cysteine, an endogenous S-nitrosothiol, in PC12 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jan 1;458(1-2):17-24. [12498902 ]
General Function:
Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PAH
Uniprot ID:
P00439
Molecular Weight:
51861.565 Da
References
  1. Thorolfsson M, Ibarra-Molero B, Fojan P, Petersen SB, Sanchez-Ruiz JM, Martinez A: L-phenylalanine binding and domain organization in human phenylalanine hydroxylase: a differential scanning calorimetry study. Biochemistry. 2002 Jun 18;41(24):7573-85. [12056888 ]
  2. Pueschel SM, Boylan J, Ellenbogen R: Studies on experimentally induced hyperphenylalaninemia. J Ment Defic Res. 1988 Aug;32 ( Pt 4):309-19. [2975336 ]
  3. Nagasaki Y, Matsubara Y, Takano H, Fujii K, Senoo M, Akanuma J, Takahashi K, Kure S, Hara M, Kanegae Y, Saito I, Narisawa K: Reversal of hypopigmentation in phenylketonuria mice by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Pediatr Res. 1999 Apr;45(4 Pt 1):465-73. [10203136 ]
  4. Fusetti F, Erlandsen H, Flatmark T, Stevens RC: Structure of tetrameric human phenylalanine hydroxylase and its implications for phenylketonuria. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16962-7. [9642259 ]
  5. Stokka AJ, Flatmark T: Substrate-induced conformational transition in human phenylalanine hydroxylase as studied by surface plasmon resonance analyses: the effect of terminal deletions, substrate analogues and phosphorylation. Biochem J. 2003 Feb 1;369(Pt 3):509-18. [12379147 ]
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FARSA
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y285
Molecular Weight:
57563.225 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Kodama K, Fukuzawa S, Sakamoto K, Nakayama H, Kigawa T, Yabuki T, Matsuda N, Shirouzu M, Takio K, Tachibana K, Yokoyama S: A new protein engineering approach combining chemistry and biology, part I; site-specific incorporation of 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine in vitro by using misacylated suppressor tRNAPhe. Chembiochem. 2006 Oct;7(10):1577-81. [16969782 ]
  4. Kotik-Kogan O, Moor N, Tworowski D, Safro M: Structural basis for discrimination of L-phenylalanine from L-tyrosine by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure. 2005 Dec;13(12):1799-807. [16338408 ]
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Is responsible for the charging of tRNA(Phe) with phenylalanine in mitochondrial translation. To a lesser extent, also catalyzes direct attachment of m-Tyr (an oxidized version of Phe) to tRNA(Phe), thereby opening the way for delivery of the misacylated tRNA to the ribosome and incorporation of ROS-damaged amino acid into proteins.
Gene Name:
FARS2
Uniprot ID:
O95363
Molecular Weight:
52356.21 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Kodama K, Fukuzawa S, Sakamoto K, Nakayama H, Kigawa T, Yabuki T, Matsuda N, Shirouzu M, Takio K, Tachibana K, Yokoyama S: A new protein engineering approach combining chemistry and biology, part I; site-specific incorporation of 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine in vitro by using misacylated suppressor tRNAPhe. Chembiochem. 2006 Oct;7(10):1577-81. [16969782 ]
  4. Kotik-Kogan O, Moor N, Tworowski D, Safro M: Structural basis for discrimination of L-phenylalanine from L-tyrosine by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure. 2005 Dec;13(12):1799-807. [16338408 ]
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
P17735
Molecular Weight:
50398.895 Da
References
  1. Luong TN, Kirsch JF: A continuous coupled spectrophotometric assay for tyrosine aminotransferase activity with aromatic and other nonpolar amino acids. Anal Biochem. 1997 Nov 1;253(1):46-9. [9356140 ]
  2. Rege AA: Purification and characterization of a tyrosine aminotransferase from Crithidia fasciculata. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1987 Aug;25(1):1-9. [2890101 ]
  3. De-Eknamkul W, Ellis BE: Behavior of Free Aromatic Amino Acid Pools in Rosmarinic Acid-Producing Cell Cultures of Anchusa officinalis L. Plant Physiol. 1989 Feb;89(2):429-33. [16666560 ]
  4. Patrizio M, Colucci M, Levi G: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein decreases cyclic AMP synthesis in rat microglia cultures. J Neurochem. 2001 Apr;77(2):399-407. [11299302 ]
General Function:
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function:
This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P05186
Molecular Weight:
57304.435 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 18073
References
  1. Lanier M, Sergienko E, Simao AM, Su Y, Chung T, Millan JL, Cashman JR: Design and synthesis of selective inhibitors of placental alkaline phosphatase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Jan 15;18(2):573-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.12.012. Epub 2009 Dec 11. [20031422 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPI
Uniprot ID:
P09923
Molecular Weight:
56811.695 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 18073
References
  1. Lanier M, Sergienko E, Simao AM, Su Y, Chung T, Millan JL, Cashman JR: Design and synthesis of selective inhibitors of placental alkaline phosphatase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Jan 15;18(2):573-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.12.012. Epub 2009 Dec 11. [20031422 ]
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
FARSB
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSD9
Molecular Weight:
66114.93 Da
References
  1. Kotik-Kogan O, Moor N, Tworowski D, Safro M: Structural basis for discrimination of L-phenylalanine from L-tyrosine by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. Structure. 2005 Dec;13(12):1799-807. [16338408 ]
General Function:
Phospholipase a2 activator activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the maintenance of ubiquitin levels.
Gene Name:
PLAA
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y263
Molecular Weight:
87156.21 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
IC50>5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 18073
References
  1. Lanier M, Sergienko E, Simao AM, Su Y, Chung T, Millan JL, Cashman JR: Design and synthesis of selective inhibitors of placental alkaline phosphatase. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Jan 15;18(2):573-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.12.012. Epub 2009 Dec 11. [20031422 ]