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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 02:05:52 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:55 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4708
Identification
Common NamePhenolphthalein
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionPhenolphthalein was withdrawn in Canada due to concerns with carcinogenicity in 1997.
Compound Type
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Household Toxin
  • Indicator and Reagent
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
3,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone
3,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one
3,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)phthalide
3,3-Bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalide
Agoral
Alophen
Alpha-di(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalide
Chocolax
Colax
Correctol
Dihydroxyphthalophenone
Doxan
Doxidan
Espotabs
Euchessina
Evac-q-kit
Evac-q-kwik
Evac-q-tabs
Evac-u-gen
Evac-v-lax
Ex-lax
Feen-a-mint gum
Feen-a-mint laxative mints
Femilax
Fenolftalein
Fenolftaleina
Koprol
Lax-pills
Laxcaps
Laxin
Laxogen
LILO
Medilax
Phenolax
Phenolphtaleine
Phenolphthaleinum
Phenophthalein
Phillips gelcaps
Phthalimetten
Phthalin
Prulet
Purga
Purgen
Purgophen
Spulmako-lax
Trilax
Chemical FormulaC20H14O4
Average Molecular Mass318.323 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass318.089 g/mol
CAS Registry Number77-09-8
IUPAC Name3,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-1-one
Traditional Namephenolphthalein
SMILESOC1=CC=C(C=C1)C1(OC(=O)C2=CC=CC=C12)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C20H14O4/c21-15-9-5-13(6-10-15)20(14-7-11-16(22)12-8-14)18-4-2-1-3-17(18)19(23)24-20/h1-12,21-22H
InChI KeyInChIKey=KJFMBFZCATUALV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzofuranones. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to a furanone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzofurans
Sub ClassBenzofuranones
Direct ParentBenzofuranones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzofuranone
  • Phthalide
  • Isobenzofuranone
  • Isocoumaran
  • Phenol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point262.5°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility400 mg/L
LogP2.41
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0099 g/LALOGPS
logP4.41ALOGPS
logP4.35ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.16ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity91.04 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability32.65 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-2592000000-d2bcec49a8083604a09aJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-004i-2950000000-2239a8a809fdd9396eafJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-004i-2950000000-2239a8a809fdd9396eafJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 60V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-7a5eb6309afb884c913cJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Negativesplash10-0006-9020000000-4bd55923e6b1a862ccdbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Positivesplash10-014l-0900000000-b5db4dfe68685f5d0076JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 75V, Positivesplash10-00kf-0900000000-972ff44a32df263bacd4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 15V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-5eb567dd72ea0ec54c42JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9020000000-0df8205f0ce2cb779ee4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 60V, Positivesplash10-004m-0930000000-9bb4dffb81d39cc30175JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Positivesplash10-004i-0290000000-582ef3c15cb87c4c8c15JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 15V, Positivesplash10-014i-0019000000-333e80eef9eaed246bccJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Positivesplash10-004i-0091000000-3949fe0e9e4846cf5036JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-494b0cf212c721029bccJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 75V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-4329eccdfee4b908e0abJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0009000000-ea673bbdb67658cda386JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-0149000000-edeb6f7d40e6c2a246a3JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-004j-5690000000-b9f1fb8a1e6a00ac4204JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0019000000-2f93262e833438931955JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00xr-0098000000-be431006a7dc4593473dJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-4090000000-b1557e38634d0b6eabb4JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00fr-2690000000-8c929a0403799e4cd208JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (1)
Uses/SourcesUsed for over a century as a laxative.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB04824
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID4764
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL63857
ChemSpider ID4600
KEGG IDC14286
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhenolphthalein
References
Synthesis Reference

Hershel B. Prindle, George E. Ham, “Preparation of phenolphthalein using cation exchange resins and aryl phosphites.” U.S. Patent US4252725, issued March, 1966.

MSDST3D4708.pdf
General References
  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Retinoic acid binding
Specific Function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols. Isoform 2 lacks transferase activity but acts as a negative regulator of isoform 1.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular Weight:
59940.495 Da
References
  1. Uesawa Y, Staines AG, Lockley D, Mohri K, Burchell B: Identification of the human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase involved in the metabolism of p-ethoxyphenylurea (dulcin). Arch Toxicol. 2007 Mar;81(3):163-8. Epub 2006 Aug 5. [16897040 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.00117 uMTox21_AR_LUC_MDAKB2_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Thromboxane a2 receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent stimulator of platelet aggregation. The activity of this receptor is mediated by a G-protein that activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. In the kidney, the binding of TXA2 to glomerular TP receptors causes intense vasoconstriction. Activates phospholipase C. Isoform 1 activates adenylyl cyclase. Isoform 2 inhibits adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
TBXA2R
Uniprot ID:
P21731
Molecular Weight:
37430.69 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.281 uMNVS_GPCR_hTXA2Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular Weight:
36511.325 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.535 uMNVS_GPCR_hAdoRA1Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.638 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.3 uMACEA_T47D_80hr_PositiveACEA Biosciences
AC501.26 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
AC501.32 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
AC500.887 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
AC506.99 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0120Odyssey Thera
AC504.85 uMOT_ERa_EREGFP_0480Odyssey Thera
AC503.39 uMTox21_ERa_BLA_Agonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociation of the G-protein complex with the free GTP-bound G-protein alpha and the G-protein beta-gamma dimer activating downstream cellular effectors. The agonist- and cell type-specific activity is predominantly coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i) and G(o) G alpha proteins, GNAI1, GNAI2, GNAI3 and GNAO1 isoforms Alpha-1 and Alpha-2, and to a lesser extend to pertussis toxin-insensitive G alpha proteins GNAZ and GNA15. They mediate an array of downstream cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and both N-type and L-type calcium channels, activation of inward rectifying potassium channels, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C (PLC), phosphoinositide/protein kinase (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and regulation of NF-kappa-B. Also couples to adenylate cyclase stimulatory G alpha proteins. The selective temporal coupling to G-proteins and subsequent signaling can be regulated by RGSZ proteins, such as RGS9, RGS17 and RGS4. Phosphorylation by members of the GPRK subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases and association with beta-arrestins is involved in short-term receptor desensitization. Beta-arrestins associate with the GPRK-phosphorylated receptor and uncouple it from the G-protein thus terminating signal transduction. The phosphorylated receptor is internalized through endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits which involves beta-arrestins. The activation of the ERK pathway occurs either in a G-protein-dependent or a beta-arrestin-dependent manner and is regulated by agonist-specific receptor phosphorylation. Acts as a class A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) which dissociates from beta-arrestin at or near the plasma membrane and undergoes rapid recycling. Receptor down-regulation pathways are varying with the agonist and occur dependent or independent of G-protein coupling. Endogenous ligands induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis and recycling whereas morphine induces only low desensitization and endocytosis. Heterooligomerization with other GPCRs can modulate agonist binding, signaling and trafficking properties. Involved in neurogenesis. Isoform 12 couples to GNAS and is proposed to be involved in excitatory effects. Isoform 16 and isoform 17 do not bind agonists but may act through oligomerization with binding-competent OPRM1 isoforms and reduce their ligand binding activity.
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.04 uMNVS_GPCR_hOpiate_muNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.86 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.6 uMTox21_Aromatase_InhibitionTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. The RAR/RXR heterodimers bind to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) composed of tandem 5'-AGGTCA-3' sites known as DR1-DR5. In the absence of ligand, acts mainly as an activator of gene expression due to weak binding to corepressors. Required for limb bud development. In concert with RARA or RARB, required for skeletal growth, matrix homeostasis and growth plate function (By similarity).
Gene Name:
RARG
Uniprot ID:
P13631
Molecular Weight:
50341.405 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.07 uMATG_DR5_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.17 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C9Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) through the induction of NR0B2 or FGF19 expression, via two distinct mechanisms. Activates the intestinal bile acid-binding protein (IBABP). Activates the transcription of bile salt export pump ABCB11 by directly recruiting histone methyltransferase CARM1 to this locus.
Gene Name:
NR1H4
Uniprot ID:
Q96RI1
Molecular Weight:
55913.915 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC508.63 uMATG_FXR_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]