Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:15:14 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4759
Identification
Common NameLiothyronine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionThe L-triiodothyronine (T3, liothyronine) thyroid hormone is normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than L-tetraiodothyronine (T4, levothyroxine, L-thyroxine). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Animal Toxin
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Hormone Replacement Agent
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
3,3',5'-Triiodo-L-thyronine
3,3',5'-Triiodothyronine
3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine
3,3',5-Triiodothyronine
3,5,3'-Triiodo-L-thyronine
3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine
3,5,3'TRIIODOTHYRONINE
4-(4-Hydroxy-3-iodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodo-L-phenylalanine
4-(4-Hydroxy-3-iodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenylalanine
Cyronine
Cytomel
L-3,3',5-Triiodo-Thyronine
L-3,3',5-Triiodothyronine
L-3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine
L-3-[4-(4-Hydroxy-3-iodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]-Alanine
L-Liothyronine
L-T3
L-Triiodothyronine
Liothyronin
Liothyroninum
Liotironina
O-(4-Hydroxy-3-iodophenyl)-3,5-diiodo-L-Tyrosine
T3
Tertroxin
Tresitope
Triiodo-L-thyronine
Triiodothyronine
Triostat
Chemical FormulaC15H12I3NO4
Average Molecular Mass650.974 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass650.790 g/mol
CAS Registry Number6893-02-3
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxy-3-iodophenoxy)-3,5-diiodophenyl]propanoic acid
Traditional Nameliothyronine
SMILES[H][C@](N)(CC1=CC(I)=C(OC2=CC(I)=C(O)C=C2)C(I)=C1)C(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C15H12I3NO4/c16-9-6-8(1-2-13(9)20)23-14-10(17)3-7(4-11(14)18)5-12(19)15(21)22/h1-4,6,12,20H,5,19H2,(H,21,22)/t12-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=AUYYCJSJGJYCDS-LBPRGKRZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. Phenylalanine and derivatives are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • Diphenylether
  • Diaryl ether
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Phenoxy compound
  • 2-iodophenol
  • 2-halophenol
  • Phenol ether
  • Iodobenzene
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Halobenzene
  • Phenol
  • Aralkylamine
  • Aryl iodide
  • Aryl halide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organoiodide
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testes
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006 map00350
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point236-237°C
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility3.96 mg/L (at 37°C)
LogP2.9
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.019 g/LALOGPS
logP0.82ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.78 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity113.43 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability43.92 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05a9-5090378000-014ef55558b58a3d38f2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000i-0009001000-1d47041336da63b556e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000i-1009001000-15f70073b9018f013c9cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000i-0009000000-71c231d7a3ab505815ffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0000009000-f932659d1e6d8a622985View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0000009000-6506a7a71dab928abfb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0fc0-0700119000-1df6db0e3031eb2739faView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-973fc871534b19242cc8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-ac3c4a198bb017dc7cccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0000009000-2770ece749a9fa1042f4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0000009000-881174c66da97022d645View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0000019000-6f798ae76702a3053339View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0000219000-d2ca9f0cc3c1b47176b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-056r-0021915000-6f3810619f383bce651aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0000009000-f932659d1e6d8a622985View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0udi-0000009000-6506a7a71dab928abfb0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0fc0-0700119000-1df6db0e3031eb2739faView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-973fc871534b19242cc8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-ac3c4a198bb017dc7cccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0udi-0000009000-2770ece749a9fa1042f4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0pb9-0000009000-4d60e144164273111464View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0000149000-87babecf610c68223da5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-016r-0039010000-b57f6dd23e6456cf7c1eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0010009000-50e441d89395debe176bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001j-0050139000-a259e39ad1204b60b373View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00e9-9262431000-bcc1f7554c4e309cef17View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of Exposure95% in 4 hours
Mechanism of ToxicityThe hormones, T4 and T3, are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine is an important component in their synthesis. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4). This is converted to the more active liothyronine form by deiodinases in peripheral tissues. Liothyronine acts on the body to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline). The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. To various extents T4 and T3 regulate protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Their most pronounced effect is on how human cells use energetic compounds. The thyroid hormone derivatives bind to the thyroid hormone receptors initially to initiate their downstream effects.
MetabolismHalf Life: 2.5 days
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesUsed as replacement or supplemental therapy in patients with hypothyroidism of any etiology, except transient hypothyrodism during the recovery phase of subacute thyroiditis.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00279
HMDB IDHMDB00265
PubChem Compound ID5920
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1544
ChemSpider ID5707
KEGG IDC02465
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID18258
BioCyc IDLIOTHYRONINE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDT3
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLiothyronine
References
Synthesis Reference

Martin Beasley, David Hause, Irwin Klein, Charles Pamplin, David Reynolds, Kevin Sills, “Controlled release pharmaceutical compositions of liothyronine and methods of making and using the same.” U.S. Patent US20060246133, issued November 02, 2006.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. [11901210 ]
  2. Stalenheim EG: Long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and criminal recidivism: follow-up 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric investigation. Psychiatry Res. 2004 Jan 1;121(3):281-91. [14675747 ]
  3. Schwartz CE, May MM, Carpenter NJ, Rogers RC, Martin J, Bialer MG, Ward J, Sanabria J, Marsa S, Lewis JA, Echeverri R, Lubs HA, Voeller K, Simensen RJ, Stevenson RE: Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Jul;77(1):41-53. Epub 2005 May 11. [15889350 ]
  4. Zimmermann-Belsing T, Dreyer M, Holst JJ, Feldt-Rasmussen U: The relationship between the serum leptin concentrations of thyrotoxic patients during treatment and their total fat mass is different from that of normal subjects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998 Nov;49(5):589-95. [10197073 ]
  5. Holt PJ: In vitro responses of the epidermis to triiodothyronine. J Invest Dermatol. 1978 Sep;71(3):202-4. [690484 ]
  6. Mizuma H, Murakami M, Mori M: Thyroid hormone activation in human vascular smooth muscle cells: expression of type II iodothyronine deiodinase. Circ Res. 2001 Feb 16;88(3):313-8. [11179199 ]
  7. Himms-Hagen J: Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis: interdisciplinary studies. FASEB J. 1990 Aug;4(11):2890-8. [2199286 ]
  8. Gledhill RF, Dessein PH, Van der Merwe CA: Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon with triiodothyronine corrects co-existent autonomic dysfunction: preliminary findings. Postgrad Med J. 1992 Apr;68(798):263-7. [1409189 ]
  9. Kassem M, Brixen K, Mosekilde L, Blum WF, Flyvbjerg A: Effects of growth hormone treatment on serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins 1-4 in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1998 Dec;49(6):747-56. [10209562 ]
  10. Llewellyn L, Ramsurn VP, Wigham T, Sweeney GE, Power DM: Cloning, characterisation and expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene in the sea bream (Sparus aurata). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Nov 8;1442(2-3):399-404. [9804999 ]
  11. Dutkiewicz S, Witeska A, Nauman A: The deiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in the testes of patients with prostate cancer. Int Urol Nephrol. 1995;27(1):81-5. [7615374 ]
  12. Gil'miiarova FN, Pervova IuV, Radomskaia VM, Gergel' NI, Tarasova SV: [Levels of unified metabolites and thyroid hormones in blood and oral fluid of children with minimal brain dysfunction]. Biomed Khim. 2004 Mar-Apr;50(2):204-10. [15179829 ]
  13. Rosenbaum M, Goldsmith R, Bloomfield D, Magnano A, Weimer L, Heymsfield S, Gallagher D, Mayer L, Murphy E, Leibel RL: Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weight. J Clin Invest. 2005 Dec;115(12):3579-86. [16322796 ]
  14. Urcelay E, Jareno MA, Menaya J, Parrilla R, Ayuso MS, Martin-Requero A: Cloning and functional characterization of the 5' regulatory region of the human mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. Lack of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine responsiveness in adipose tissue. Eur J Biochem. 2000 Dec;267(24):7209-17. [11106433 ]
  15. Escobar-Morreale HF, Botella-Carretero JI, Gomez-Bueno M, Galan JM, Barrios V, Sancho J: Thyroid hormone replacement therapy in primary hypothyroidism: a randomized trial comparing L-thyroxine plus liothyronine with L-thyroxine alone. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 15;142(6):412-24. [15767619 ]
  16. Lebon V, Dufour S, Petersen KF, Ren J, Jucker BM, Slezak LA, Cline GW, Rothman DL, Shulman GI: Effect of triiodothyronine on mitochondrial energy coupling in human skeletal muscle. J Clin Invest. 2001 Sep;108(5):733-7. [11544279 ]
  17. Iwao H, Abe Y: [Expression of the renin and angiotensinogen genes]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1991 Jan;97(1):1-11. [2045011 ]
  18. Calvo R, Obregon MJ, Ruiz de Ona C, Escobar del Rey F, Morreale de Escobar G: Congenital hypothyroidism, as studied in rats. Crucial role of maternal thyroxine but not of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the protection of the fetal brain. J Clin Invest. 1990 Sep;86(3):889-99. [2394838 ]
  19. Haas MJ, Fishman M, Mreyoud A, Mooradian AD: Thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRP) mediates thyroid hormone-induced cytotoxicity in primary neuronal cultures. Exp Brain Res. 2005 Jan;160(4):424-32. Epub 2004 Oct 15. [15490139 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.
Gene Name:
THRB
Uniprot ID:
P10828
Molecular Weight:
52787.16 Da
References
  1. Bernal J: Thyroid hormone receptors in brain development and function. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Mar;3(3):249-59. [17315033 ]
  2. Gonzalez-Sancho JM, Garcia V, Bonilla F, Munoz A: Thyroid hormone receptors/THR genes in human cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Mar 31;192(2):121-32. [12668276 ]
  3. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  4. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  5. Yen PM, Feng X, Flamant F, Chen Y, Walker RL, Weiss RE, Chassande O, Samarut J, Refetoff S, Meltzer PS: Effects of ligand and thyroid hormone receptor isoforms on hepatic gene expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptor knockout mice. EMBO Rep. 2003 Jun;4(6):581-7. [12776178 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  7. Wu SY, Sadow PM, Refetoff S, Weiss RE: Tissue responses to thyroid hormone in a kindred with resistance to thyroid hormone harboring a commonly occurring mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453T). J Lab Clin Med. 2005 Aug;146(2):85-94. [16099238 ]
  8. Kullak-Ublick GA, Ismair MG, Stieger B, Landmann L, Huber R, Pizzagalli F, Fattinger K, Meier PJ, Hagenbuch B: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide B (OATP-B) and its functional comparison with three other OATPs of human liver. Gastroenterology. 2001 Feb;120(2):525-33. [11159893 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Isoform Alpha-1: Nuclear hormone receptor that can act as a repressor or activator of transcription. High affinity receptor for thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine.Isoform Alpha-2: Does not bind thyroid hormone and functions as a weak dominant negative inhibitor of thyroid hormone action.
Gene Name:
THRA
Uniprot ID:
P10827
Molecular Weight:
54815.055 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.0728 uMATG_THRa1_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Purine nucleoside binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular Weight:
36511.325 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.683 uMNVS_GPCR_hAdoRA1Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.76 uMNVS_NR_hPRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth. Involved in chromatin remodeling. May play a negative role in adipogenesis through the regulation of lipolytic and antilipogenic genes expression.
Gene Name:
NR3C1
Uniprot ID:
P04150
Molecular Weight:
85658.57 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.91 uMNVS_NR_hGRNovascreen
AC509.67 uMTox21_GR_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.59 uMTox21_AhRTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins including fibrillar collagen, fibronectin, TNC and ACAN. Cleaves triple helical collagens, including type I, type II and type III collagen, but has the highest activity with soluble type II collagen. Can also degrade collagen type IV, type XIV and type X. May also function by activating or degrading key regulatory proteins, such as TGFB1 and CTGF. Plays a role in wound healing, tissue remodeling, cartilage degradation, bone development, bone mineralization and ossification. Required for normal embryonic bone development and ossification. Plays a role in the healing of bone fractures via endochondral ossification. Plays a role in wound healing, probably by a mechanism that involves proteolytic activation of TGFB1 and degradation of CTGF. Plays a role in keratinocyte migration during wound healing. May play a role in cell migration and in tumor cell invasion.
Gene Name:
MMP13
Uniprot ID:
P45452
Molecular Weight:
53819.32 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.8 uMNVS_ENZ_hMMP13Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.04 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
AC507.52 uMNVS_NR_hERNovascreen
AC505.18 uMTox21_ERa_BLA_Agonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Protein tyrosine/serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Shows activity both for tyrosine-protein phosphate and serine-protein phosphate, but displays a strong preference toward phosphotyrosines. Specifically dephosphorylates and inactivates ERK1 and ERK2.
Gene Name:
DUSP3
Uniprot ID:
P51452
Molecular Weight:
20478.1 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.79 uMNVS_ENZ_hDUSP3Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase. It has a high affinity for tricyclic psychotropic drugs (By similarity). Controls pyramidal neurons migration during corticogenesis, through the regulation of CDK5 activity (By similarity). Is an activator of TOR signaling (PubMed:23027611).
Gene Name:
HTR6
Uniprot ID:
P50406
Molecular Weight:
46953.625 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC5010 uMNVS_GPCR_h5HT6Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]