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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:16:36 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:57 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4788
Identification
Common NameSimvastatin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSimvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that is derived synthetically from the fermentation of Aspergillus terreus. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hydroxymethylglutaryl COA reductases), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL receptors, it increases breakdown of LDL cholesterol.
Compound Type
  • Anticholesteremic Agent
  • Drug
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Food Toxin
  • Fungal Toxin
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitor
  • Hypolipidemic Agent
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(+)-Simvastatin
2,2-Dimethylbutyric acid, 8-ester with (4R,6R)-6-(2-((1S,2S,6R,8S,8ar)-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-8-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-1-naphthyl)ethyl)tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one
Cholestat
Colemin
Denan
Eucor
Kolestevan
Labistatin
Lipex
Lipinorm
Liponorm
Lipovas
Lodales
Medipo
MK-733
Modutrol
Nivelipol
Nor-Vastina
Pepstatin
Rechol
Simcor
Simovil
Simvastatin lactone
Simvastatina
Simvastatine
Simvastatinum
Simvotin
Sinvacor
Sinvascor
Sivastin
Sivatin
Sivinar
Sorfox
Sotovastin
Starezin
Starstat
Starzoko
Stasiva
Statex
Staticor
Statin
Statinal
Stativer
Synvinolin
Valemia
Velostatin
Zocor
Zocord
Chemical FormulaC25H38O5
Average Molecular Mass418.566 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass418.272 g/mol
CAS Registry Number79902-63-9
IUPAC Name(1S,3R,7S,8S,8aR)-8-{2-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-oxooxan-2-yl]ethyl}-3,7-dimethyl-1,2,3,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl 2,2-dimethylbutanoate
Traditional Namesimvastatin
SMILES[H][C@]1(O)CC(=O)O[C@]([H])(CC[C@@]2([H])[C@@]([H])(C)C=CC3=C[C@]([H])(C)C[C@]([H])(OC(=O)C(C)(C)CC)[C@]23[H])C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C25H38O5/c1-6-25(4,5)24(28)30-21-12-15(2)11-17-8-7-16(3)20(23(17)21)10-9-19-13-18(26)14-22(27)29-19/h7-8,11,15-16,18-21,23,26H,6,9-10,12-14H2,1-5H3/t15-,16-,18+,19+,20-,21-,23-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=RYMZZMVNJRMUDD-HGQWONQESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as delta valerolactones. These are cyclic organic compounds containing an oxan-2- one moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassLactones
Sub ClassDelta valerolactones
Direct ParentDelta valerolactones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Delta_valerolactone
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Delta valerolactone
  • Fatty acyl
  • Oxane
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Muscle
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point135-138°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityInsoluble
LogP4.68
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.012 g/LALOGPS
logP4.51ALOGPS
logP4.46ChemAxon
logS-4.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.91ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area72.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity117.68 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability47.85 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fk9-9154200000-9a8f0d47976b67e5c9d5JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00b9-9137500000-2fdfacbca82ff764afb2JSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0229-0967000000-6c51c479e90818ec703bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0229-0967000000-6c51c479e90818ec703bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0fya-0988400000-d9778b2f11696b81fb07JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-006w-0790000000-4f23e0376d85845e0964JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-05i1-0940000000-058f6298af54c05532edJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0092-0910000000-6ecd838b2f6fddf67dadJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0597-0900000000-012d0d6fcabbd21d696dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-000e-0590000000-7f99e0b9531d4f42831aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0092-1960000000-e8429bbec985c5ecdd2dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0592-1910000000-dc09a51ca37fe4d24a5aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0abd-1900000000-9b55821f49270e5dd598JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-0536-1900000000-d8a41a97ccbdb30e5a5eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-002f-2900000000-abe04d7f99c3eb0f2fcbJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-3028900000-ac9ec6a75c0ccc802808JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0fr2-9156100000-30ee09c0a70d4a8c7b20JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00kb-9120000000-4cb8e77d058b47cb3d82JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0009500000-4449db04da972dd8d05fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01dj-4109100000-a14d60d17f23d1fb9872JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9131000000-24b3e278d457c517b414JSpectraViewer
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-3900000000-d04758924bf88a90c017JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureAbsorption of simvastatin, estimated relative to an intravenous reference dose, in each of two animal species tested, averaged about 85% of an oral dose. In animal studies, after oral dosing, simvastatin achieved substantially higher concentrations in the liver than in non-target tissues. However, because simvastatin undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, the availability of the drug in the systemic is low. Peak plasma concentration occurs 1.3 - 2.4 hours after administration.
Mechanism of ToxicitySimvastatin is a prodrug in which the 6-membered lactone ring of simvastatin is hydrolyzed in vivo to generate the beta,delta-dihydroxy acid, an active metabolite structurally similar to HMG-CoA (hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA). Once hydrolyzed, simvastatin competes with HMG-CoA for HMG-CoA reductase, a hepatic microsomal enzyme. Interference with the activity of this enzyme reduces the quantity of mevalonic acid, a precursor of cholesterol.
MetabolismHepatic, simvastatin is a substrate for CYP3A4. The major active metabolites of simvastatin are ‘_-hydroxyacid metabolite and its 6'-hydroxy, 6'-hydroxymethyl, and 6'-exomethylene derivatives Route of Elimination: Following an oral dose of 14C-labeled simvastatin in man, 13% of the dose was excreted in urine and 60% in feces. Half Life: 3 hours
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and for the reduction in the risk of cardiac heart disease mortality and cardiovascular events. It can also be used in adolescent patients for the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsThe most common adverse reactions that lead to discontinuation of therapy include gastrointestinal disorders (0.5%), myalgia (0.1%), and arthralgia (0.1%).
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB00641
HMDB IDHMDB05007
PubChem Compound ID54454
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1064
ChemSpider ID49179
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID9150
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSimvastatin
References
Synthesis Reference

Shieh-Shung J. Chen, Byron H. Arison, “Process for the preparation of 3-keto, 5-hydroxy simvastatin analogs.” U.S. Patent US4965200, issued April, 1981.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Wolozin B, Wang SW, Li NC, Lee A, Lee TA, Kazis LE: Simvastatin is associated with a reduced incidence of dementia and Parkinson's disease. BMC Med. 2007 Jul 19;5:20. [17640385 ]
  2. Mahboobi SK, Shohat EZ, Jellinek SP, Rose M: Systemic infections can decrease the threshold of statin-induced muscle injury. South Med J. 2006 Apr;99(4):403-4. [16634254 ]
  3. Antons KA, Williams CD, Baker SK, Phillips PS: Clinical perspectives of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis. Am J Med. 2006 May;119(5):400-9. [16651050 ]
  4. Tsivgoulis G, Spengos K, Karandreas N, Panas M, Kladi A, Manta P: Presymptomatic neuromuscular disorders disclosed following statin treatment. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jul 24;166(14):1519-24. [16864763 ]
  5. Finsterer J, Zuntner G: Rhabdomyolysis from Simvastatin triggered by infection and muscle exertion. South Med J. 2005 Aug;98(8):827-9. [16144183 ]
  6. Soininen K, Niemi M, Kilkki E, Strandberg T, Kivisto KT: Muscle symptoms associated with statins: a series of twenty patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jan;98(1):51-4. [16433891 ]
  7. Davidson MH, Maccubbin D, Stepanavage M, Strony J, Musliner T: Striated muscle safety of ezetimibe/simvastatin (Vytorin). Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 15;97(2):223-8. Epub 2005 Nov 21. [16442367 ]
  8. Hellinger FJ, Encinosa WE: Inappropriate drug combinations among privately insured patients with HIV disease. Med Care. 2005 Sep;43(9 Suppl):III53-62. [16116309 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
HMGCR
Uniprot ID:
P04035
Molecular Weight:
97475.155 Da
References
  1. Cenedella RJ, Kuszak JR, Al-Ghoul KJ, Qin S, Sexton PS: Discordant expression of the sterol pathway in lens underlies simvastatin-induced cataracts in Chbb: Thom rats. J Lipid Res. 2003 Jan;44(1):198-211. [12518039 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  3. Kocarek TA, Dahn MS, Cai H, Strom SC, Mercer-Haines NA: Regulation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A expression by hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors in primary cultured human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 Dec;30(12):1400-5. [12433810 ]
  4. Liu L, Zhang R, Zhao JJ, Rogers JD, Hsieh JY, Fang W, Matuszewski BK, Dobrinska MR: Determination of simvastatin-derived HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in biomatrices using an automated enzyme inhibition assay with radioactivity detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003 Apr 24;32(1):107-23. [12852453 ]
  5. Pappu AS, Bacon SP, Illingworth DR: Residual effects of lovastatin and simvastatin on urinary mevalonate excretions in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Apr;141(4):250-6. [12677170 ]
  6. Stoebner PE, Michot C, Ligeron C, Durand L, Meynadier J, Meunier L: [Simvastatin-induced lichen planus pemphigoides]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2003 Feb;130(2 Pt 1):187-90. [12671581 ]
General Function:
Protein kinase binding
Specific Function:
Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. Integrins alpha-M/beta-2 and alpha-X/beta-2 are receptors for the iC3b fragment of the third complement component and for fibrinogen. Integrin alpha-X/beta-2 recognizes the sequence G-P-R in fibrinogen alpha-chain. Integrin alpha-M/beta-2 recognizes P1 and P2 peptides of fibrinogen gamma chain. Integrin alpha-M/beta-2 is also a receptor for factor X. Integrin alpha-D/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM3 and VCAM1. Triggers neutrophil transmigration during lung injury through PTK2B/PYK2-mediated activation.
Gene Name:
ITGB2
Uniprot ID:
P05107
Molecular Weight:
84781.08 Da
References
  1. Fujii T, Masuyama K, Kawashima K: Simvastatin regulates non-neuronal cholinergic activity in T lymphocytes via CD11a-mediated pathways. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Oct;179(1-2):101-7. Epub 2006 Jul 10. [16828882 ]
  2. Fujii T, Takada-Takatori Y, Kawashima K: Roles played by lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in the regulation of lymphocytic cholinergic activity. Life Sci. 2007 May 30;80(24-25):2320-4. Epub 2007 Jan 17. [17289088 ]
  3. Katano H, Pesnicak L, Cohen JI: Simvastatin induces apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and delays development of EBV lymphomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 6;101(14):4960-5. Epub 2004 Mar 23. [15041742 ]
  4. Takahashi HK, Mori S, Iwagaki H, Yoshino T, Tanaka N, Nishibori M: Simvastatin induces interleukin-18 production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clin Immunol. 2005 Sep;116(3):211-6. [15936988 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.45 uMATG_PXR_TRANSAttagene
AC502.98 uMATG_PXRE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular Weight:
57882.48 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC503.62 uMTox21_Aromatase_InhibitionTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.81 uMTox21_AR_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
AC505.84 uMTox21_AR_LUC_MDAKB2_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.56 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth. Involved in chromatin remodeling. May play a negative role in adipogenesis through the regulation of lipolytic and antilipogenic genes expression.
Gene Name:
NR3C1
Uniprot ID:
P04150
Molecular Weight:
85658.57 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.08 uMTox21_GR_BLA_Agonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.33 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP3A4Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TP53
Uniprot ID:
P04637
Molecular Weight:
43652.79 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.884535292 uMAPR_p53Act_72h_upApredica
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.71 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]