Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-09-11 05:22:42 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:59 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4924
Identification
Common NameFlavone
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionQuercetin is a flavonoid that forms the "backbone" for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. In studies, quercetin is found to be the most active of the flavonoids, and many medicinal plants owe much of their activity to their high quercetin content. Quercetin has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial processes of inflammation. For example, it inhibits both the manufacture and release of histamine and other allergic/inflammatory mediators. In addition, it exerts potent antioxidant activity and vitamin C-sparing action.
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Plant Toxin
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2-Phenyl-4-chromone
2-Phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
2-Phenyl-4H-benzopyran-4-one
2-Phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one
2-Phenylbenzopyran-4-one
2-Phenylchromone
Chemical FormulaC15H10O2
Average Molecular Mass222.239 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass222.068 g/mol
CAS Registry Number525-82-6
IUPAC Name2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one
Traditional Nameflavone
SMILESO=C1C=C(OC2=CC=CC=C12)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C15H10O2/c16-13-10-15(11-6-2-1-3-7-11)17-14-9-5-4-8-12(13)14/h1-10H
InChI KeyInChIKey=VHBFFQKBGNRLFZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavones. These are flavonoids with a structure based on the backbone of 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassFlavonoids
Sub ClassFlavones
Direct ParentFlavones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Flavone
  • Chromone
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Pyranone
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Pyran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Fibroblasts
  • Placenta
  • Prostate
  • Spleen
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point100°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogP3.56
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0082 g/LALOGPS
logP3.54ALOGPS
logP2.97ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.63ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.3 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity66.97 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.79 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dl-8930000000-3944bcd59fd467475fe4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dl-8930000000-3944bcd59fd467475fe4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dl-6930000000-af643d33c8bd90e12e34View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0fkc-0920000000-128b7f1f2509ae8deed1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-0190000000-c5dc113240ef2eddc9bcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0900000000-cbc602f9fb305cfab2adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0900000000-1767db1ce89913542708View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-0002-9610000000-8f6ea890ee174ff2cab9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-00fr-0910000000-f99e5ea29982d8657bf3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-03di-0390000000-1a1ab6620996a9ddc429View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-e8ad16adbd7e6c8dcc23View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00di-0950000000-94425655598eb5a5cfb4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-dd86946c50229a30d124View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00di-0490000000-5a3c393a8cf2ea0eac18View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-fbeb1951905acd75fd95View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-38ca3854c6dc613ef0c9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-0090000000-e4c89a64e226d0d9d4f5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0uk9-9810000000-3db9238369438dc9ba10View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-fa65d36bc0c1d13e4df8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-85df3bc42e931d0eb225View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0v6v-3920000000-0890f524572f69030963View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00di-8980000000-8dd4180be084c0205feeView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesIn studies, quercetin is found to be the most active of the flavonoids, and many medicinal plants owe much of their activity to their high quercetin content.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB07776
HMDB IDHMDB03075
PubChem Compound ID10680
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID10230
KEGG IDC10043
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID42491
BioCyc IDCPD-6641
CTD IDC043562
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDFLN
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkFlavone
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDSLink
General References
  1. Cummings J, Kerr DJ, Kaye SB, Smyth JF: Optimisation of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of flavone acetic acid and its major human metabolites in plasma and urine. J Chromatogr. 1988 Sep 23;431(1):77-85. [3235538 ]
  2. Choi MH, Kim KR, Hong JK, Park SJ, Chung BC: Determination of non-steroidal estrogens in breast milk, plasma, urine and hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16(24):2221-8. [12478564 ]
  3. Cai H, Steward WP, Gescher AJ: Determination of the putative cancer chemopreventive flavone tricin in plasma and tissues of mice by HPLC with UV--visible detection. Biomed Chromatogr. 2005 Sep;19(7):518-22. [15828058 ]
  4. Barrellier MT: [Lymphedema: is there a treatment?]. Rev Med Interne. 1992 Jan-Feb;13(1):49-57. [1410875 ]
  5. Sengupta B, Uematsu T, Jacobsson P, Swenson J: Exploring the antioxidant property of bioflavonoid quercetin in preventing DNA glycation: a calorimetric and spectroscopic study. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jan 6;339(1):355-61. Epub 2005 Nov 15. [16300739 ]
  6. Weiss RB, Greene RF, Knight RD, Collins JM, Pelosi JJ, Sulkes A, Curt GA: Phase I and clinical pharmacology study of intravenous flavone acetic acid (NSC 347512). Cancer Res. 1988 Oct 15;48(20):5878-82. [3167843 ]
  7. Alonso M, Tamasdan C, Miller DC, Newcomb EW: Flavopiridol induces apoptosis in glioma cell lines independent of retinoblastoma and p53 tumor suppressor pathway alterations by a caspase-independent pathway. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Feb;2(2):139-50. [12589031 ]
  8. Ching LM, Joseph WR, Crosier KE, Baguley BC: Induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha messenger RNA in human and murine cells by the flavone acetic acid analogue 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (NSC 640488). Cancer Res. 1994 Feb 15;54(4):870-2. [8313372 ]
  9. Kim SJ: Effect of biflavones of Ginkgo biloba against UVB-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. J Dermatol. 2001 Apr;28(4):193-9. [11449670 ]
  10. Lin N, Sato T, Takayama Y, Mimaki Y, Sashida Y, Yano M, Ito A: Novel anti-inflammatory actions of nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxy flavonoid, on human synovial fibroblasts and mouse macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Jun 15;65(12):2065-71. [12787887 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Transcription regulatory region dna binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcriptional activator. Binds to the XRE promoter region of genes it activates. Activates the expression of multiple phase I and II xenobiotic chemical metabolizing enzyme genes (such as the CYP1A1 gene). Mediates biochemical and toxic effects of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Involved in cell-cycle regulation. Likely to play an important role in the development and maturation of many tissues. Regulates the circadian clock by inhibiting the basal and circadian expression of the core circadian component PER1. Inhibits PER1 by repressing the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer mediated transcriptional activation of PER1.
Gene Name:
AHR
Uniprot ID:
P35869
Molecular Weight:
96146.705 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC504.11 uMTox21_AhRTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
  2. Wang H, Li J, Gao Y, Xu Y, Pan Y, Tsuji I, Sun ZJ, Li XM: Xeno-oestrogens and phyto-oestrogens are alternative ligands for the androgen receptor. Asian J Androl. 2010 Jul;12(4):535-47. doi: 10.1038/aja.2010.14. Epub 2010 May 3. [20436506 ]
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, retinoid and xenobiotics. Preferentially oxidizes 17beta-estradiol to the carcinogenic 4-hydroxy derivative, and a variety of procarcinogenic compounds to their activated forms, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Promotes angiogenesis by removing cellular oxygenation products, thereby decreasing oxidative stress, release of antiangiogenic factor THBS2, then allowing endothelial cells migration, cell adhesion and capillary morphogenesis. These changes are concommitant with the endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide synthesis. Plays an important role in the regulation of perivascular cell proliferation, migration, and survival through modulation of the intracellular oxidative state and NF-kappa-B expression and/or activity, during angiogenesis. Contributes to oxidative homeostasis and ultrastructural organization and function of trabecular meshwork tissue through modulation of POSTN expression.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular Weight:
60845.33 Da
References
  1. Shimada T, Tanaka K, Takenaka S, Foroozesh MK, Murayama N, Yamazaki H, Guengerich FP, Komori M: Reverse type I binding spectra of human cytochrome P450 1B1 induced by flavonoid, stilbene, pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl derivatives that inhibit catalytic activity: a structure-function relationship study. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009 Jul;22(7):1325-33. doi: 10.1021/tx900127s. [19563207 ]
  2. Shimada T, Tanaka K, Takenaka S, Murayama N, Martin MV, Foroozesh MK, Yamazaki H, Guengerich FP, Komori M: Structure-function relationships of inhibition of human cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010 Dec 20;23(12):1921-35. doi: 10.1021/tx100286d. [21053930 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide (PubMed:11159812). Catalyzes 4-beta-hydroxylation of cholesterol. May catalyze 25-hydroxylation of cholesterol in vitro (PubMed:21576599).
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Shimada T, Tanaka K, Takenaka S, Murayama N, Martin MV, Foroozesh MK, Yamazaki H, Guengerich FP, Komori M: Structure-function relationships of inhibition of human cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010 Dec 20;23(12):1921-35. doi: 10.1021/tx100286d. [21053930 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Han DH, Denison MS, Tachibana H, Yamada K: Relationship between estrogen receptor-binding and estrogenic activities of environmental estrogens and suppression by flavonoids. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Jul;66(7):1479-87. [12224631 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds to an ERR-alpha response element (ERRE) containing a single consensus half-site, 5'-TNAAGGTCA-3'. Can bind to the medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) response element NRRE-1 and may act as an important regulator of MCAD promoter. Binds to the C1 region of the lactoferrin gene promoter. Requires dimerization and the coactivator, PGC-1A, for full activity. The ERRalpha/PGC1alpha complex is a regulator of energy metabolism. Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRA
Uniprot ID:
P11474
Molecular Weight:
45509.11 Da
References
  1. Suetsugi M, Su L, Karlsberg K, Yuan YC, Chen S: Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are agonists of estrogen-related receptors. Mol Cancer Res. 2003 Nov;1(13):981-91. [14638870 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.5 uMATG_ERa_TRANSAttagene
AC505 uMATG_ERE_CISAttagene
AC501.51 uMTox21_ERa_LUC_BG1_AgonistTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC505.26 uMATG_PPARg_TRANSAttagene
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.58 uMNVS_NR_hARNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor, may regulate ESR1 transcriptional activity. Induces the expression of PERM1 in the skeletal muscle.
Gene Name:
ESRRB
Uniprot ID:
O95718
Molecular Weight:
56207.085 Da
References
  1. Suetsugi M, Su L, Karlsberg K, Yuan YC, Chen S: Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are agonists of estrogen-related receptors. Mol Cancer Res. 2003 Nov;1(13):981-91. [14638870 ]