You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-03-06 18:58:21 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:21:23 UTC
Accession NumberT3D0240
Identification
Common NameDichlorvos
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionDichlorvos is used as a household and public health fumigant, for crop protection and as an anthelmintic in animal feeds.Dichlorvos or 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) is a highly volatile organophosphate, widely used as a insecticide to control household pests, in public health, and protecting stored product from insects. It is effective against mushroom flies, aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and whiteflies in greenhouse, outdoor fruit, and vegetable crops. (Wikipedia) Dichlorvos has been shown to exhibit neurotransmitter and relaxant functions (1, 2).
Compound Type
  • Ester
  • Food Toxin
  • Household Toxin
  • Insecticide
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organophosphate
  • Pesticide
  • Pollutant
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
2,2-Dichloroethenol dimethyl phosphate
2,2-Dichloroethenyl dimethyl phosphate
2,2-Dichloroethenyl phosphoric acid dimethyl ester
2,2-Dichlorovinyl alcohol dimethyl phosphate
2,2-Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate
2,2-Dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphoric acid ester
2,2-Dichlorovinyl-O,O-dimethyl phosphate
2,2-Dimethyldichlorovinyl phosphate
Algard
Apavap
Aquaguard
Astrobot
Atgard
Benfos
Bibesol
Brevinyl
Canogard
Cekusan
Chlorvinphos
Cyanophos
Cypona
DDVP
Dichloroethenyl dimethyl phosphate
Dichlorophos
Diclorvos
Dimethyl 2,2-dichloroethenyl phosphate
Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate
Dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate
Dimethyl O,O-dichlorovinyl-2,2-phosphate
Dimethyl-2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate
Dimethyldichlorovinyl phosphate
Divipan
Duravos
Equigand
Equigard
Equigel
Equiguard
Ethenol, 2,2-dichloro-, dimethyl phosphate
Fecama
Herkal
Herkol
Insectigas D
Krecalvin
Lindan
Lindanmafu
Nerkol
Nogos
Novotox
Nuvan
O,O-Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate
O,O-Dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate
O-(2,2-Dichloroethenyl) O,O-dimethyl phosphate
O-(2,2-Dichlorvinyl)-O,O-dimethylphosphate
Panaplate
Phosphoric acid 2,2-dichloroethenyl dimethyl ester
Phosphoric acid 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl ester
Phosvit
Tetravos
Topanol
Unifos
Unitox
Vapona
Verdican
Verdipor
Verdisol
Chemical FormulaC4H7Cl2O4P
Average Molecular Mass220.976 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass219.946 g/mol
CAS Registry Number62-73-7
IUPAC Name2,2-dichloroethenyl dimethyl phosphate
Traditional Namedichlorvos
SMILESCOP(=O)(OC)OC=C(Cl)Cl
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C4H7Cl2O4P/c1-8-11(7,9-2)10-3-4(5)6/h3H,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=OEBRKCOSUFCWJD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkyl phosphates. These are organic compounds containing a phosphate group that is linked to exactly two alkyl chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic phosphoric acids and derivatives
Sub ClassPhosphate esters
Direct ParentDialkyl phosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Chloroalkene
  • Haloalkene
  • Vinyl halide
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceColorless liquid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point-60°C
Boiling Point> 184°C (363°F )
Solubility8 mg/mL at 20°C
LogP1.43
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.77 g/LALOGPS
logP1.27ALOGPS
logP1.37ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area44.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity52.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1900000000-09877a8cb478a3cc6839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0a4i-1900000000-09877a8cb478a3cc6839JSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-7950000000-d8cdc825bf993c643600JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-f98de9faf1be0bb7aa83JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-93c62701332435cee993JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-f922e6ba3c6c6b90775aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-40a51b0033ce31d71432JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-9ef61f0d99a23257c13dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-001i-3900000000-c65f2474371722a3bcc8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-f922e6ba3c6c6b90775aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-93c62701332435cee993JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 60V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-40a51b0033ce31d71432JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 75V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-9ef61f0d99a23257c13dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 15V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-f98de9faf1be0bb7aa83JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 90V, Negativesplash10-001i-3900000000-c65f2474371722a3bcc8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-00fr-0690000000-26446ccc45ba04ecd6a2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-004i-0930000000-5337a3d357153a9b46f2JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-65501644b18b2b26ba71JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-004i-2900000000-051c8cc88647cdf4959eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-004i-4900000000-dccb667225335d52f6d1JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-004i-6900000000-8c14f2901d28ffb6e55aJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-cc2455ee44a59b12a9f4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-004i-2900000000-c792ae223d6916b397d8JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-0a4l-0900000000-ca0ee2a0d7d29061a4c4JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positivesplash10-052f-0900000000-347f95538a81149f9317JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-004i-0930000000-62f725b3cb5b2d33fd64JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 45V, Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-a16d9953cbbf3ee35661JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 30V, Positivesplash10-004i-0930000000-2ea542aeab9013b4a45eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-7900000000-0efae19e253ed849b729JSpectraViewer | MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (7) ; inhalation (7) ; dermal (7)
Mechanism of ToxicityDichlorvos is a cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. A cholinesterase inhibitor (or 'anticholinesterase') suppresses the action of acetylcholinesterase. Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of acetylcholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death. Nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by binding a serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely. Acetylcholine esterase breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released at nerve and muscle junctions, in order to allow the muscle or organ to relax. The result of acetylcholine esterase inhibition is that acetylcholine builds up and continues to act so that any nerve impulses are continually transmitted and muscle contractions do not stop. Among the most common acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are phosphorus-based compounds, which are designed to bind to the active site of the enzyme. The structural requirements are a phosphorus atom bearing two lipophilic groups, a leaving group (such as a halide or thiocyanate), and a terminal oxygen.
MetabolismMetabolism of organophosphates occurs principally by oxidation, by hydrolysis via esterases and by reaction with glutathione. Demethylation and glucuronidation may also occur. Oxidation of organophosphorus pesticides may result in moderately toxic products. In general, phosphorothioates are not directly toxic but require oxidative metabolism to the proximal toxin. The glutathione transferase reactions produce products that are, in most cases, of low toxicity. Paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. PON1 can inactivate some organophosphates through hydrolysis. PON1 hydrolyzes the active metabolites in several organophosphates insecticides as well as, nerve agents such as soman, sarin, and VX. The presence of PON1 polymorphisms causes there to be different enzyme levels and catalytic efficiency of this esterase, which in turn suggests that different individuals may be more susceptible to the toxic effect of organophosphate exposure.
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 56 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (6) LC50: 198 mg/m3 (Inhalation, Rat) (6) LD50: 205 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (6)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (8)
Uses/SourcesOrganophosphates are used in agriculture, in the home, in gardens, and in veterinary practice. (7)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors can cause a cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea/vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Accumulation of ACh at motor nerves causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression at the neuromuscular junction. When this occurs symptoms such as muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis can be seen. When there is an accumulation of ACh at autonomic ganglia this causes overstimulation of nicotinic expression in the sympathetic system. Symptoms associated with this are hypertension, and hypoglycemia. Overstimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system, due to accumulation of ACh, results in anxiety, headache, convulsions, ataxia, depression of respiration and circulation, tremor, general weakness, and potentially coma. When there is expression of muscarinic overstimulation due to excess acetylcholine at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors symptoms of visual disturbances, tightness in chest, wheezing due to bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial secretions, increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, peristalsis, and urination can occur. Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Most of the research on reproductive effects has been conducted on farmers working with pesticides and insecticdes in rural areas. In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to organophosphate pesticide exposure. Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). These syndromes result after acute and chronic exposure to OP pesticides.
SymptomsThe effects of organophosphate poisoning are recalled using the mnemonic SLUDGEM (Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Diaphoresis (or Defecation), Gastrointestinal motility, Emesis, Miosis). (5)
TreatmentIf the compound has been ingested, rapid gastric lavage should be performed using 5% sodium bicarbonate. For skin contact, the skin should be washed with soap and water. If the compound has entered the eyes, they should be washed with large quantities of isotonic saline or water. In serious cases, atropine and/or pralidoxime should be administered. Anti-cholinergic drugs work to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and reactivate AChE. Atropine can be used as an antidote in conjunction with pralidoxime or other pyridinium oximes (such as trimedoxime or obidoxime), though the use of '-oximes' has been found to be of no benefit, or possibly harmful, in at least two meta-analyses. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist, and thus blocks the action of acetylcholine peripherally.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDHMDB33956
PubChem Compound ID3039
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL167911
ChemSpider ID2931
KEGG IDC14430
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID34690
BioCyc IDPANTOYL-LACTONE
CTD IDD004006
Stitch IDDichlorvos
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR ID454
Wikipedia LinkDichlorvos
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D0240.pdf
General References
  1. Choudhary S, Raheja G, Gupta V, Gill KD: Possible involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in dichlorvos induced delayed neurotoxicity. J Biochem Mol Biol Biophys. 2002 Feb;6(1):29-36. [12186780 ]
  2. Ebeigbe AB, Campbell PI: Inhibitory effect of dichlorvos on arterial smooth muscle contraction. Pharmacol Res Commun. 1986 Mar;18(3):283-91. [3725847 ]
  3. Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
  4. Wikipedia. Dichlorvos. Last Updated 1st July 2009. [Link]
  5. Wikipedia. Organophosphate poisoning. Last Updated 12 July 2009. [Link]
  6. AMVAC Chemical Corporation (2004). Material Safety Data Sheet for NUVAN 7 and NUVAN 7G. [Link]
  7. National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) (1999). Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. 5th ed. Chapter 4: Organophosphate insecticides. [Link]
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2014). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails

Targets

General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.75 uMNVS_ENZ_hESNovascreen
References
  1. Tacal O, Lockridge O: Methamidophos, dichlorvos, O-methoate and diazinon pesticides used in Turkey make a covalent bond with butyrylcholinesterase detected by mass spectrometry. J Appl Toxicol. 2010 Jul;30(5):469-75. doi: 10.1002/jat.1518. [20229498 ]
  2. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
  2. Luft S, Milki E, Glustrom E, Ampiah-Bonney R, O'Hara P. Binding of Organochloride and Pyrethroid Pesticides To Estrogen Receptors α and β: A Fluorescence Polarization Assay. Biophysical Journal 2009;96(3):444a.
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Keratin-binding protein required for epithelial cell polarization. Involved in apical junction complex (AJC) assembly via its interaction with PARD3. Required for ciliogenesis.
Gene Name:
FBF1
Uniprot ID:
Q8TES7
Molecular Weight:
125445.19 Da
References
  1. Peeples ES, Schopfer LM, Duysen EG, Spaulding R, Voelker T, Thompson CM, Lockridge O: Albumin, a new biomarker of organophosphorus toxicant exposure, identified by mass spectrometry. Toxicol Sci. 2005 Feb;83(2):303-12. Epub 2004 Nov 3. [15525694 ]
  2. Li B, Schopfer LM, Hinrichs SH, Masson P, Lockridge O: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for organophosphorus toxicants bound to human albumin at Tyr411. Anal Biochem. 2007 Feb 15;361(2):263-72. Epub 2006 Dec 4. [17188226 ]
General Function:
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function:
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from sites of absorption and heme degradation to those of storage and utilization. Serum transferrin may also have a further role in stimulating cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
TF
Uniprot ID:
P02787
Molecular Weight:
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Li B, Schopfer LM, Grigoryan H, Thompson CM, Hinrichs SH, Masson P, Lockridge O: Tyrosines of human and mouse transferrin covalently labeled by organophosphorus agents: a new motif for binding to proteins that have no active site serine. Toxicol Sci. 2009 Jan;107(1):144-55. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn211. Epub 2008 Oct 16. [18930948 ]
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Involved in lymphocyte proliferation and functions as a signal transmitting receptor in lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and platelets.
Gene Name:
CD69
Uniprot ID:
Q07108
Molecular Weight:
22559.25 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_SAg_CD69_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC509.34 uMTox21_AR_BLA_Agonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]