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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-18 20:15:07 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:23:05 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1042
Identification
Common NameAvermectin B1b
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionThe avermectins are a series of macrocyclic lactone derivatives with potent anthelmintic properties. A commonly used therapy in recent times has been based on oral or parenteral administration of avermectins, which are macrocyclic lactones produced by fermentation of various, carefully prepared laboratory broths using the soil micro-organism Streptomyces avermitilis. They show activity against a broad range of nematodes and arthropod parasites of domestic animals at dose rates of 300 microgram/kg or less. Unlike the macrolide or polyene antibiotics, they lack significant antibacterial or antifungal activity. (2)
Compound Type
  • Avermectin
  • Bacterial Toxin
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Lachrymator
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Pesticide
Chemical Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC47H70O14
Average Molecular Mass859.050 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass858.477 g/mol
CAS Registry Number65195-56-4
IUPAC Name21',24'-dihydroxy-12'-({5-[(5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl)oxy]-4-methoxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl}oxy)-5,11',13',22'-tetramethyl-6-(propan-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-3',7',19'-trioxaspiro[pyran-2,6'-tetracyclo[15.6.1.1⁴,⁸.0²⁰,²⁴]pentacosane]-10',14',16',22'-tetraen-2'-one
Traditional Name21',24'-dihydroxy-12'-({5-[(5-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl)oxy]-4-methoxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl}oxy)-6-isopropyl-5,11',13',22'-tetramethyl-5,6-dihydro-3',7',19'-trioxaspiro[pyran-2,6'-tetracyclo[15.6.1.1⁴,⁸.0²⁰,²⁴]pentacosane]-10',14',16',22'-tetraen-2'-one
SMILESCOC1CC(OC2C(C)OC(CC2OC)OC2C(C)C=CC=C3COC4C(O)C(C)=CC(C(=O)OC5CC(CC=C2C)OC2(C5)OC(C(C)C)C(C)C=C2)C34O)OC(C)C1O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C47H70O14/c1-24(2)41-27(5)16-17-46(61-41)22-33-19-32(60-46)15-14-26(4)42(25(3)12-11-13-31-23-54-44-39(48)28(6)18-34(45(50)57-33)47(31,44)51)58-38-21-36(53-10)43(30(8)56-38)59-37-20-35(52-9)40(49)29(7)55-37/h11-14,16-18,24-25,27,29-30,32-44,48-49,51H,15,19-23H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,26-14+,31-13+
InChI KeyInChIKey=ZFUKERYTFURFGA-VOPGCZCJSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as macrolides and analogues. These are organic compounds containing a lactone ring of at least twelve members.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassMacrolides and analogues
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentMacrolides and analogues
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Macrolide
  • Disaccharide
  • Glycosyl compound
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Ketal
  • Oxane
  • Pyran
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Lactone
  • Acetal
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Oxacycle
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0067 g/LALOGPS
logP3.91ALOGPS
logP5.4ChemAxon
logS-5.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area170.06 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity226.58 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability94.15 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0pi1-9200072260-e324ed1bb19f15a6d907JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0aba-9500050010-f11d8271c8992335af69JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0r01-9200010010-81448b990ab14a7cfdb4JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-3211041390-6f8fb67f4929d839e778JSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-02tm-1300091320-de99d199f07a27514f3aJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0532-8600290000-fcc098f990c3160e68c7JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityIt has low solubility in water and extensive non-specific binding. It opens GABA-insensitive chloride channels, reducing membrane resistance and increasing conductance inward. (1)
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC.
Uses/SourcesActive ingredient in some commercial ant bait traps. (2)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAvermectins are neurotoxic and have reproductive and developmental effects. (3)
SymptomsAvermectins cause irritation of skin and eyes, central nervous system depression (incoordination, tremors, lethargy, excitation, pupil dilation, coma), vomiting, convulsions and/or tremors, and respiratory failure at high doses. (3)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID6858005
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider IDNot Available
KEGG IDC11967
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID29537
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDAvermectin B1b
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1042.pdf
General References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
  2. Wikipedia. Avermectin. Last Updated 8 June 2009. ht [Link]
  3. PAN Pesticides Database (2009). Avermectin. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular Weight:
51801.395 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA2
Uniprot ID:
P47869
Molecular Weight:
51325.85 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRA5
Uniprot ID:
P31644
Molecular Weight:
52145.645 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRB2
Uniprot ID:
P47870
Molecular Weight:
59149.895 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1C3
Molecular Weight:
53594.49 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG2
Uniprot ID:
P18507
Molecular Weight:
54161.78 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRG3
Uniprot ID:
Q99928
Molecular Weight:
54288.16 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-1 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR1
Uniprot ID:
P24046
Molecular Weight:
55882.91 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. Rho-2 GABA receptor could play a role in retinal neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GABRR2
Uniprot ID:
P28476
Molecular Weight:
54150.41 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Gaba-a receptor activity
Specific Function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel.
Gene Name:
GABRR3
Uniprot ID:
A8MPY1
Molecular Weight:
54271.1 Da
References
  1. Casarett LJ, Klaassen CD, and Watkins JB (2003). Casarett and Doull's essentials of toxicology. New York: McGraw-Hill/Medical Pub. Div.
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]