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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-06-19 21:59:01 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:24:16 UTC
Accession NumberT3D1602
Identification
Common NameSilver carbonate
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSilver carbonate is a chemical compound of silver. It is used as a reagent in organic synthesis such as the Koenigs-Knorr reaction. It is also employed to convert alkyl bromides into alcohols. Silver is a metallic element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. It occurs naturally in its pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. (5, 6, 8)
Compound Type
  • Industrial/Workplace Toxin
  • Inorganic Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Silver Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
Carbonic acid (acd/name 4.0)
Carbonic acid, disilver(1+) salt
Carbonic acid, silver salt
Disilver carbonate
Fetizon's reagent
Silver carbonate (2:1)
Silver carbonate Ag2CO3
Silver carbonic acid
Silver(1) carbonate
Chemical FormulaCAg2O3
Average Molecular Mass275.745 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass273.795 g/mol
CAS Registry Number534-16-7
IUPAC Namediargentio carbonate
Traditional Namesilver carbonate
SMILES[Ag]OC(=O)O[Ag]
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/CH2O3.2Ag/c2-1(3)4;;/h(H2,2,3,4);;/q;2*+1/p-2
InChI KeyInChIKey=KQTXIZHBFFWWFW-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as organic carbonic acids. These are compounds comprising the carbonic acid functional group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassOrganic carbonic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentOrganic carbonic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Carbonate salt
  • Carbonic acid
  • Organic transition metal salt
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic silver salt
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceYellow/green solid.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point210°C decomposes to Ag 2 O
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility0.0333 mg/mL [MERCK INDEX (1996); cold water]
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility160.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.74ALOGPS
logP0.41ChemAxon
logS-0.24ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area35.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity7.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability7.47 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral (5) ; inhalation (5) ; dermal (5)
Mechanism of ToxicityMetallic silver is oxidized and may deposit in the tissues, causing arygria. The silver ion is known to inhibit glutathione peroxidase and NA+,K+-ATPase activity, disrupting selenium-catalyzed sulfhydryl oxidation-reduction reactions and intracellular ion concentrations, respectively. Silver nanoparticles are believed to disrupt the mitochondrial respiratory chain, causing oxidative stress, reduced ATP synthesis, and DNA damage. (5, 1, 2, 3, 4)
MetabolismSilver and its compounds can be absorbed via inhalation, while silver compounds can also be absorbed orally and dermally. It distributes throughout the body in the blood, particularily to the liver. Insoluble silver salts are transformed into soluble silver sulfide albuminates, bind to amino or carboxyl groups in RNA, DNA, and proteins, or are reduced to metallic silver by ascorbic acid or catecholamines. Metallic silver is oxidized and may deposit in the tissues, causing arygria. Silver is eliminated primarily in the faeces. (5)
Toxicity ValuesLD50: 3731 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (9)
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesSilver carbonate is used as a reagent in organic synthesis such as the Koenigs-Knorr reaction. It is also employed to convert alkyl bromides into alcohols. (8)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsSilver itself is not toxic to humans, but most silver salts are. In large doses, silver and compounds containing it can be absorbed into the circulatory system and become deposited in various body tissues, leading to argyria, which results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Argyria is rare, and although, so far as known, this condition does not otherwise harm a person's health, it is disfiguring and usually permanent. Mild forms of argyria are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis. (6)
SymptomsExposure to high levels of silver for a long period of time may result in a condition called arygria, a blue-gray discoloration of the skin and other body tissues. Argyria is a permanent effect but does not appear to be harmful to health. Exposure to high levels of silver in the air has resulted in breathing problems, lung and throat irritation, and stomach pains. Skin contact with silver can cause mild allergic reactions such as rash, swelling, and inflammation in some people. (5)
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID92796
ChEMBL IDNot Available
ChemSpider ID83768
KEGG IDNot Available
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDC033260
Stitch IDSilver carbonate
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D1602.pdf
General References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
  2. AshaRani PV, Low Kah Mun G, Hande MP, Valiyaveettil S: Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human cells. ACS Nano. 2009 Feb 24;3(2):279-90. doi: 10.1021/nn800596w. [19236062 ]
  3. Kim S, Choi JE, Choi J, Chung KH, Park K, Yi J, Ryu DY: Oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009 Sep;23(6):1076-84. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.06.001. Epub 2009 Jun 7. [19508889 ]
  4. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
  5. ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1990). Toxicological profile for silver. U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). [Link]
  6. Wikipedia. Silver. Last updated Dec 2014. [Link]
  7. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) INCHEM (1977). WHO Food Additive Series No. 12: Silver. [Link]
  8. Wikipedia. Silver carbonate. Last Updated 21 April 2009. [Link]
  9. The Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory of Oxford University (2003). Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for silver (I) carbonate. [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione. May constitute a glutathione peroxidase-like protective system against peroxide damage in sperm membrane lipids.
Gene Name:
GPX5
Uniprot ID:
O75715
Molecular Weight:
25202.14 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Protects the hemoglobin in erythrocytes from oxidative breakdown.
Gene Name:
GPX1
Uniprot ID:
P07203
Molecular Weight:
22087.94 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested organic hydroperoxides. Tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide and linoleic acid hydroperoxide but not phosphatidycholine hydroperoxide, can act as acceptors.
Gene Name:
GPX2
Uniprot ID:
P18283
Molecular Weight:
21953.835 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function:
Protects cells and enzymes from oxidative damage, by catalyzing the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and organic hydroperoxide, by glutathione.
Gene Name:
GPX3
Uniprot ID:
P22352
Molecular Weight:
25552.185 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX6
Uniprot ID:
P59796
Molecular Weight:
24970.46 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
It protects esophageal epithelia from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It suppresses acidic bile acid-induced reactive oxigen species (ROS) and protects against oxidative DNA damage and double-strand breaks.
Gene Name:
GPX7
Uniprot ID:
Q96SL4
Molecular Weight:
20995.88 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Protects cells against membrane lipid peroxidation and cell death. Required for normal sperm development and male fertility. Could play a major role in protecting mammals from the toxicity of ingested lipid hydroperoxides. Essential for embryonic development. Protects from radiation and oxidative damage.
Gene Name:
GPX4
Uniprot ID:
P36969
Molecular Weight:
22174.52 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Peroxidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GPX8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TED1
Molecular Weight:
23880.83 Da
References
  1. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Mercury, silver, and gold inhibition of selenium-accelerated cysteine oxidation. J Inorg Biochem. 1986 Sep;28(1):13-20. [3760861 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular Weight:
112895.01 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50993
Molecular Weight:
112264.385 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Steroid hormone binding
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A3
Uniprot ID:
P13637
Molecular Weight:
111747.51 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients. Plays a role in sperm motility.
Gene Name:
ATP1A4
Uniprot ID:
Q13733
Molecular Weight:
114165.44 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane.Involved in cell adhesion and establishing epithelial cell polarity.
Gene Name:
ATP1B1
Uniprot ID:
P05026
Molecular Weight:
35061.07 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-2 subunit is not known.Mediates cell adhesion of neurons and astrocytes, and promotes neurite outgrowth.
Gene Name:
ATP1B2
Uniprot ID:
P14415
Molecular Weight:
33366.925 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Sodium:potassium-exchanging atpase activity
Specific Function:
This is the non-catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of Na(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. The exact function of the beta-3 subunit is not known.
Gene Name:
ATP1B3
Uniprot ID:
P54709
Molecular Weight:
31512.34 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
May be involved in forming the receptor site for cardiac glycoside binding or may modulate the transport function of the sodium ATPase.
Gene Name:
FXYD2
Uniprot ID:
P54710
Molecular Weight:
7283.265 Da
References
  1. Bianchini A, Playle RC, Wood CM, Walsh PJ: Mechanism of acute silver toxicity in marine invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2005 Mar 25;72(1-2):67-82. Epub 2004 Dec 29. [15748748 ]
17. DNA
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da