Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2009-07-21 20:28:48 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:25:56 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3041
Identification
Common NameMethotrimeprazine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionMethotrimeprazine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a phenothiazine with pharmacological activity similar to that of both chlorpromazine and promethazine. It has the histamine-antagonist properties of the antihistamines together with central nervous system effects resembling those of chlorpromazine. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604). Methotrimeprazine's antipsychotic effect is largely due to its antagonism of dopamine receptors in the brain. In addition, its binding to 5HT2 receptors may also play a role.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Analgesic, Non-Narcotic
  • Antipsychotic Agent
  • Dopamine Antagonist
  • Drug
  • Ether
  • Metabolite
  • Organic Compound
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(-)-(2R)-3-(2-Methoxy-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropan-1-amine
(-)-10-(3-(Dimethylamino)-2-methylpropyl)-2-methoxyphenothiazine
2-Methoxytrimeprazine
Levomepromazina
Levomepromazine
Levomepromazinum
Levoprome
Neurocil
Nosinan
Nozinan
Chemical FormulaC19H24N2OS
Average Molecular Mass328.472 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass328.161 g/mol
CAS Registry Number60-99-1
IUPAC Name[(2R)-3-(2-methoxy-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-2-methylpropyl]dimethylamine
Traditional Namemethotrimeprazine
SMILES[H][C@@](C)(CN(C)C)CN1C2=CC=CC=C2SC2=C1C=C(OC)C=C2
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C19H24N2OS/c1-14(12-20(2)3)13-21-16-7-5-6-8-18(16)23-19-10-9-15(22-4)11-17(19)21/h5-11,14H,12-13H2,1-4H3/t14-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=VRQVVMDWGGWHTJ-CQSZACIVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenothiazines. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a phenothiazine moiety, which is a linear tricyclic system that consists of a two benzene rings joined by a para-thiazine ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzothiazines
Sub ClassPhenothiazines
Direct ParentPhenothiazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenothiazine
  • Alkyldiarylamine
  • Diarylthioether
  • Aryl thioether
  • Anisole
  • Tertiary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Para-thiazine
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Ether
  • Azacycle
  • Thioether
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Applications
Biological Roles
Chemical Roles
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility20 mg/L (at 25°C)
LogP4.68
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0053 g/LALOGPS
logP4.84ALOGPS
logP4.25ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.42ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area15.71 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity99.83 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability36.77 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9272000000-663ed1e564555c7e8faeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-0009000000-292add600a1d733c3662View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-004i-0319000000-9bcdb870e16f29c42cc7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0udi-2920000000-f73fff6b08acc61ea5b7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0zfr-6920000000-dc5968beb0d112813d55View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0a4i-9410000000-0d1f6734452bedc68d3fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positivesplash10-0udi-0910000000-10fe32fa41981fcda652View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-0469000000-698db513d68f8238a284View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ue9-3983000000-0963d25ff0f442a1b819View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0pc3-9420000000-45332e32eecba186d700View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0019000000-783dfd7af7ab08cc7337View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00p0-0494000000-78a58d14f5fb19218ba8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-002b-3960000000-d1127cf211de0694b952View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-056r-9356000000-bb17e4980980d336d337View in MoNA
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureOral; parental (intramuscular). Methotrimeprazine has an incomplete oral bioavailability, because it undergoes considerable first-pass-metabolism in the liver. Oral bioavailability is approximately 50 to 60%.
Mechanism of ToxicityMethotrimeprazine's antipsychotic effect is largely due to its antagonism of dopamine receptors in the brain. In addition, its binding to 5HT2 receptors may also play a role. Methotrimeprazine exerts its actions through a central adrenergic-blocking, a dopamine-blocking, a serotonin-blocking, and a anticholinergic blocking.
MetabolismHepatic. Methotrimeprazine is metabolized in the liver and degraded to a sulfoxid-, a glucuronid- and a demethyl-moiety. Half Life: Approximately 20 hours.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesFor the treatment of psychosis, particular those of schizophrenia, and manic phases of bipolar disorder. As a potentiator of anesthetics: In general anesthesia where it can be used as both a pre- and post-operative sedative and analgesic. (4) As an anti-emetic: For the treatment of nausea and vomiting of central origin.(4) As a sedative: For the management of insomnia. (4)
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsSymptoms of overdose include convulsions, spastic movements, and coma.
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB01403
HMDB IDHMDB15474
PubChem Compound ID72287
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL1764
ChemSpider ID65239
KEGG IDC07192
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID6838
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDMethotrimeprazine
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLevomepromazine
References
Synthesis Reference

Christian Berger, “Process for preparing levomepromazine hydrogen maleate.” U.S. Patent US4798895, issued January 17, 1989.

MSDST3D3041.pdf
General References
  1. Harati Y, Gooch C, Swenson M, Edelman S, Greene D, Raskin P, Donofrio P, Cornblath D, Sachdeo R, Siu CO, Kamin M: Double-blind randomized trial of tramadol for the treatment of the pain of diabetic neuropathy. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6):1842-6. [9633738 ]
  2. Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p604
  3. Doctissimo.ca (2009). Nozinan. [Link]
  4. Drug monograph for Methotrimeprazine [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [2870716 ]
  3. Tsukamoto T, Asakura M, Hirata N, Imafuku J, Matsui H, Hasegawa K: Interaction of neuroleptics and antidepressants with rat brain alpha 2-receptors: a possible relationship between alpha 2-receptor antagonism and antidepressant action. Biol Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;19(9):1283-91. [6149771 ]
General Function:
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phentolamine > mianserine > spiperone > prazosin > alprenolol > propanolol > pindolol.
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular Weight:
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [2870716 ]
  3. Tsukamoto T, Asakura M, Hirata N, Imafuku J, Matsui H, Hasegawa K: Interaction of neuroleptics and antidepressants with rat brain alpha 2-receptors: a possible relationship between alpha 2-receptor antagonism and antidepressant action. Biol Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;19(9):1283-91. [6149771 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins.
Gene Name:
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID:
P18825
Molecular Weight:
49521.585 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [2870716 ]
  3. Tsukamoto T, Asakura M, Hirata N, Imafuku J, Matsui H, Hasegawa K: Interaction of neuroleptics and antidepressants with rat brain alpha 2-receptors: a possible relationship between alpha 2-receptor antagonism and antidepressant action. Biol Psychiatry. 1984 Sep;19(9):1283-91. [6149771 ]
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
  2. Dahl SG, Hough E, Hals PA: Phenothiazine drugs and metabolites: molecular conformation and dopaminergic, alpha adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1263-9. [2870716 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Plays a role in the regulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release, 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake and in the regulation of extracellular dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, and thereby affects neural activity. May play a role in the perception of pain. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including impulsive behavior. Required for normal proliferation of embryonic cardiac myocytes and normal heart development. Protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Plays a role in the adaptation of pulmonary arteries to chronic hypoxia. Plays a role in vasoconstriction. Required for normal osteoblast function and proliferation, and for maintaining normal bone density. Required for normal proliferation of the interstitial cells of Cajal in the intestine.
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine (PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular Weight:
56835.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium.
Gene Name:
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID:
P25100
Molecular Weight:
60462.205 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled acetylcholine receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition. Signaling promotes phospholipase C activity, leading to the release of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); this then triggers calcium ion release into the cytosol.
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular Weight:
51714.605 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Receptor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular Weight:
66127.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
Gene Name:
CHRM4
Uniprot ID:
P08173
Molecular Weight:
53048.65 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM5
Uniprot ID:
P08912
Molecular Weight:
60073.205 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates phospholipase C and a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood. Plays a role in the regulation of behavior, including responses to anxiogenic situations and psychoactive substances. Plays a role in intestinal smooth muscle contraction, and may play a role in arterial vasoconstriction.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human JC polyomavirus/JCPyV.
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins and mediate activation of alternative signaling pathways. Signaling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system that modulates the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and down-stream signaling cascades and promotes the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores. Regulates neuronal activity via the activation of short transient receptor potential calcium channels in the brain, and thereby modulates the activation of pro-opiomelacortin neurons and the release of CRH that then regulates the release of corticosterone. Plays a role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior, responses to anxiogenic stimuli and stress. Plays a role in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular Weight:
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular Weight:
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Green B, Pettit T, Faith L, Seaton K: Focus on levomepromazine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Dec;20(12):1877-81. [15701205 ]
General Function:
Histamine receptor activity
Specific Function:
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Gene Name:
HRH1
Uniprot ID:
P35367
Molecular Weight:
55783.61 Da
References
  1. Hals PA, Hall H, Dahl SG: Muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptor binding of phenothiazine drug metabolites. Life Sci. 1988;43(5):405-12. [2899826 ]