Tmic
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2013-04-25 07:56:55 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:34 UTC
Accession NumberT3D3942
Identification
Common NameVinclozolin
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionVinclozolin (trade names: Ronilan, Curalan, Vorlan, Touche) is a common dicarboximide fungicide used to control diseases, such as blights, rots and molds in vineyards, and on fruits and vegetables such as raspberries, lettuce, kiwi, snap beans, and onions. It is also used on turf on golf courses. Two common fungi that vinclozolin is used to protect crops against are botrytis cinerea and sclerotinia scleotiorun. First registered in 1981, vinclozolin is widely used but its overall application has declined. As a pesticide, vinclozolin is regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). It has gone through a series of tests and regulations in order to evaluate the risks and hazards to the environment and animals. Among the research, a main finding is that vinclozolin has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor with antiandrogenic effects.
Compound Type
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Carbamate
  • Ester
  • Ether
  • Fungicide
  • Organic Compound
  • Organochloride
  • Pesticide
  • Synthetic Compound
Chemical Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC12H9Cl2NO3
Average Molecular Mass286.111 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass284.996 g/mol
CAS Registry Number50471-44-8
IUPAC Name3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-ethenyl-5-methyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione
Traditional Namevinclozolin
SMILESCC1(OC(=O)N(C1=O)C1=CC(Cl)=CC(Cl)=C1)C=C
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C12H9Cl2NO3/c1-3-12(2)10(16)15(11(17)18-12)9-5-7(13)4-8(14)6-9/h3-6H,1H2,2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=FSCWZHGZWWDELK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dichlorobenzenes. Dichlorobenzenes are compounds containing a benzene with exactly two chlorine atoms attached to it.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassHalobenzenes
Direct ParentDichlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene
  • Oxazolidinedione
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aryl halide
  • Oxazolidinone
  • Dicarboximide
  • Oxazolidine
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginExogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological RolesNot Available
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.036 g/LALOGPS
logP3.14ALOGPS
logP3.74ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.61 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity67 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability26.19 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0090000000-b3300389257f8faff5caView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0gbi-9030000000-06d3f48418764eb1a617View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-942d3569d2c68aa5db43View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-7ac69daa2d2d030d875bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0090000000-758f586c440fea004f5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-1900000000-4cdfab3c8d249dc4f7e7View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01p9-7980000000-95f8d8d8e2f4e48d2ccdView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureNot Available
Mechanism of ToxicityVinclozolin and some of its metabolites have antiandrogenic activity. Vinclozolin's main toxic effects are related to its antiandrogenic activity. They compete with androgens for the androgen receptor, inhibit androgen receptor-DNA binding, and alter androgen-dependent gene expression.
MetabolismNot Available
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesThis is a man-made compound that is used as a pesticide.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsNot Available
SymptomsNot Available
TreatmentNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDNot Available
HMDB IDNot Available
PubChem Compound ID39676
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL513221
ChemSpider ID36278
KEGG IDC10981
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D3942.pdf
General References
  1. EPA [Link]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated Genes
GeneGene SymbolGene IDInteractionChromosomeDetails
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. Transcription activation is down-regulated by NR0B2. Activated, but not phosphorylated, by HIPK3 and ZIPK/DAPK3.
Gene Name:
AR
Uniprot ID:
P10275
Molecular Weight:
98987.9 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC500.29 uMNVS_NR_hARNovascreen
AC500.95 uMNVS_NR_hARNovascreen
AC507.56 uMTox21_AR_BLA_Antagonist_ratioTox21/NCGC
References
  1. Sonneveld E, Jansen HJ, Riteco JA, Brouwer A, van der Burg B: Development of androgen- and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays. Toxicol Sci. 2005 Jan;83(1):136-48. Epub 2004 Oct 13. [15483189 ]
  2. Kavlock R, Cummings A: Mode of action: inhibition of androgen receptor function--vinclozolin-induced malformations in reproductive development. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2005 Oct-Nov;35(8-9):721-6. [16417039 ]
  3. Molina-Molina JM, Hillenweck A, Jouanin I, Zalko D, Cravedi JP, Fernandez MF, Pillon A, Nicolas JC, Olea N, Balaguer P: Steroid receptor profiling of vinclozolin and its primary metabolites. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Oct 1;216(1):44-54. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16750840 ]
  4. van der Burg B, Winter R, Man HY, Vangenechten C, Berckmans P, Weimer M, Witters H, van der Linden S: Optimization and prevalidation of the in vitro AR CALUX method to test androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of compounds. Reprod Toxicol. 2010 Aug;30(1):18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.04.012. Epub 2010 May 10. [20438827 ]
  5. van Ravenzwaay B, Kolle SN, Ramirez T, Kamp HG: Vinclozolin: a case study on the identification of endocrine active substances in the past and a future perspective. Toxicol Lett. 2013 Dec 16;223(3):271-9. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.03.029. Epub 2013 Apr 1. [23558297 ]
  6. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. Ligand binding induces a conformational change allowing subsequent or combinatorial association with multiprotein coactivator complexes through LXXLL motifs of their respective components. Mutual transrepression occurs between the estrogen receptor (ER) and NF-kappa-B in a cell-type specific manner. Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. Recruited to the NF-kappa-B response element of the CCL2 and IL8 promoters and can displace CREBBP. Present with NF-kappa-B components RELA/p65 and NFKB1/p50 on ERE sequences. Can also act synergistically with NF-kappa-B to activate transcription involving respective recruitment adjacent response elements; the function involves CREBBP. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1. Also mediates membrane-initiated estrogen signaling involving various kinase cascades. Isoform 3 is involved in activation of NOS3 and endothelial nitric oxide production. Isoforms lacking one or several functional domains are thought to modulate transcriptional activity by competitive ligand or DNA binding and/or heterodimerization with the full length receptor. Essential for MTA1-mediated transcriptional regulation of BRCA1 and BCAS3. Isoform 3 can bind to ERE and inhibit isoform 1.
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Lemaire G, Mnif W, Mauvais P, Balaguer P, Rahmani R: Activation of alpha- and beta-estrogen receptors by persistent pesticides in reporter cell lines. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 15;79(12):1160-9. Epub 2006 Mar 27. [16626760 ]
  2. Molina-Molina JM, Hillenweck A, Jouanin I, Zalko D, Cravedi JP, Fernandez MF, Pillon A, Nicolas JC, Olea N, Balaguer P: Steroid receptor profiling of vinclozolin and its primary metabolites. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Oct 1;216(1):44-54. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16750840 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual.
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Lemaire G, Mnif W, Mauvais P, Balaguer P, Rahmani R: Activation of alpha- and beta-estrogen receptors by persistent pesticides in reporter cell lines. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 15;79(12):1160-9. Epub 2006 Mar 27. [16626760 ]
  2. Molina-Molina JM, Hillenweck A, Jouanin I, Zalko D, Cravedi JP, Fernandez MF, Pillon A, Nicolas JC, Olea N, Balaguer P: Steroid receptor profiling of vinclozolin and its primary metabolites. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Oct 1;216(1):44-54. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16750840 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels.
Gene Name:
NR3C2
Uniprot ID:
P08235
Molecular Weight:
107066.575 Da
References
  1. Molina-Molina JM, Hillenweck A, Jouanin I, Zalko D, Cravedi JP, Fernandez MF, Pillon A, Nicolas JC, Olea N, Balaguer P: Steroid receptor profiling of vinclozolin and its primary metabolites. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Oct 1;216(1):44-54. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16750840 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PRB) is involved activation of c-SRC/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform A: inactive in stimulating c-Src/MAPK signaling on hormone stimulation.Isoform 4: Increases mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular respiration upon stimulation by progesterone.
Gene Name:
PGR
Uniprot ID:
P06401
Molecular Weight:
98979.96 Da
References
  1. Molina-Molina JM, Hillenweck A, Jouanin I, Zalko D, Cravedi JP, Fernandez MF, Pillon A, Nicolas JC, Olea N, Balaguer P: Steroid receptor profiling of vinclozolin and its primary metabolites. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006 Oct 1;216(1):44-54. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16750840 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes.
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.70 uMNVS_NR_hPXRNovascreen
AC501.45 uMNVS_NR_hPXRNovascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Cytokine activity
Specific Function:
Produced by activated macrophages, IL-1 stimulates thymocyte proliferation by inducing IL-2 release, B-cell maturation and proliferation, and fibroblast growth factor activity. IL-1 proteins are involved in the inflammatory response, being identified as endogenous pyrogens, and are reported to stimulate the release of prostaglandin and collagenase from synovial cells.
Gene Name:
IL1A
Uniprot ID:
P01583
Molecular Weight:
30606.29 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_BE3C_IL1a_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Type iii transforming growth factor beta receptor binding
Specific Function:
Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts. Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells.
Gene Name:
TGFB1
Uniprot ID:
P01137
Molecular Weight:
44340.685 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.48 uMBSK_BE3C_TGFb1_downBioSeek
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC501.96 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
AC503.00 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2C19Novascreen
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC506.88 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_24CellzDirect
AC503.22 uMCLZD_CYP1A2_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
AC507.22 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_6CellzDirect
AC504.99 uMNVS_ADME_hCYP2B6Novascreen
AC505.40 uMCLZD_CYP2B6_48CellzDirect
References
  1. Sipes NS, Martin MT, Kothiya P, Reif DM, Judson RS, Richard AM, Houck KA, Dix DJ, Kavlock RJ, Knudsen TB: Profiling 976 ToxCast chemicals across 331 enzymatic and receptor signaling assays. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013 Jun 17;26(6):878-95. doi: 10.1021/tx400021f. Epub 2013 May 16. [23611293 ]