You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Toxin, Toxin Target Database.
Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:46:47 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:40 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4149
Identification
Common NameGuanidoacetic acid
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionGuanidinoacetic acid is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Guanidoacetic acid is a metabolite in the Urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups, and in the metabolic pathways of several amino acids. This includes glycine, serine, threonine, arginine and proline metabolism. Guanidinoacetic acid is also a precursor of creatine, an essential substrate for muscle energy metabolism.
Compound Type
  • Affinity Label
  • Amide
  • Amine
  • Food Toxin
  • Lachrymator
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
(carboxymethyl)-Guanidine
2-[[Amino(imino)methyl]amino]acetate
2-[[Amino(imino)methyl]amino]acetic acid
a-Guanidinoacetate
a-Guanidinoacetic acid
alpha-Guanidinoacetate
alpha-Guanidinoacetic acid
b-Guanidinoacetate
b-Guanidinoacetic acid
beta-Guanidinoacetate
beta-Guanidinoacetic acid
Betacyamine
Betasyamine
Glycocyamine
Guanidineacetate
Guanidineacetic acid
Guanidinoacetate
Guanidinoacetic acid
Guanidoacetate
Guanidylacetate
Guanidylacetic acid
Guanyl glycine
N-Amidino-Glycine
N-Amidinoglycine
[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-Acetate
[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-Acetic acid
Chemical FormulaC3H7N3O2
Average Molecular Mass117.107 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass117.054 g/mol
CAS Registry Number352-97-6
IUPAC Name2-carbamimidamidoacetic acid
Traditional Nameglycocyamine
SMILESNC(=N)NCC(O)=O
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C3H7N3O2/c4-3(5)6-1-2(7)8/h1H2,(H,7,8)(H4,4,5,6)
InChI KeyInChIKey=BPMFZUMJYQTVII-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Guanidine
  • Carboximidamide
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Imine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020 map00330
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004 map00260
ArgininemiaSMP00357 Not Available
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencySMP00504 Not Available
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)SMP00188 Not Available
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencySMP00214 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
AppearanceWhite powder.
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting PointNot Available
Boiling PointNot Available
Solubility3.6 mg/mL at 15°C
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.19 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.24ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area99.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity36.72 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.54 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0901000000-4a89fe463d29379e6339JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0911000000-542baca9dcca73225bf0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-0911200000-bb7ea068f193f39c283bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0901000000-4a89fe463d29379e6339JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-0911000000-542baca9dcca73225bf0JSpectraViewer | MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-006t-0911200000-bb7ea068f193f39c283bJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9100000000-c703c631a81e400681bdJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9700000000-1dae820000c4f9ec1662JSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TMS_1_4) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (TBDMS_1_4) - 70eV, PositiveNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-016r-7900000000-4777d20e1ab29262427eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dl-9000000000-a1b5501bf0f7a9b0489dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-b61a48cf749b57a2c77eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0gk9-7900000000-5ba298286886c1fabdf5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-a5b77a913821d637210fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-00di-9100000000-a5b77a913821d637210fJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0gk9-7900000000-5ba298286886c1fabdf5JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-014i-6900000000-4d655a894c702bdfdb59JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-23d5c2795ed49f043127JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-ae360cd8919c8fbce3eeJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-93406e2cdb79770abc7dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-c6bd00733ea6fa3f6e5dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0ab9-9000000000-2667e0007de6a723415eJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0100-9400000000-c5561d5ccaf260c048ecJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0g29-9400000000-421d076c4b6868ca69faJSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-53db4bf2729a2990a938JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-05fu-9000000000-2cad7322e574eb992175JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 35V, Positivesplash10-01di-9800000000-967331a78fe4a7917408JSpectraViewer | MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-7b281fae734baaa2695dJSpectraViewer | MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-4900000000-1b831140a3071dd98e0cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9300000000-b27aea734be08f5d2ddcJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00dl-9000000000-dea2f28faa5430d7e56fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00xr-9500000000-1ba345c7064e9cb70f9cJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-6864d4355d3462fbc69fJSpectraViewer
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-1c36299ab8746bbf67a5JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableJSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as guanidinoacetic acid are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (2). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (3)
MetabolismGuanidino acetic acid (GAA) is synthesized in the liver and kidney from Arg and Gly and subsequently methylated by S-adenosylmethionine to form creatine. The conversion of guaniodacetate to creatinine in the liver causes a depletion of methyl groups. This causes homocysteine levels to rise, which has been shown to produce cardiovascular and skeletal problems.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous). Is used as a supplement to enhance athletic performance.
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsAcute exposure to guanidoacetic acid can lead to some mild skin and eye irritation. Chronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Chronically high levels of guanidoacetic acid are associated with at least 4 inborn errors of metabolism including: Argininemia, Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency) and S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase Deficiency.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentChronic Exposure: Kidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored. Acute Exposure: EYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB02751
HMDB IDHMDB00128
PubChem Compound ID763
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL281593
ChemSpider ID743
KEGG IDC00581
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16344
BioCyc IDGUANIDOACETIC_ACID
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDNMG
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
MSDST3D4149.pdf
General References
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  4. Schulze A: Creatine deficiency syndromes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb;244(1-2):143-50. [12701824 ]
  5. Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Stoeckler-Ipsiroglu S, Adami A, Appleton R, Araujo HC, Duran M, Ensenauer R, Fernandez-Alvarez E, Garcia P, Grolik C, Item CB, Leuzzi V, Marquardt I, Muhl A, Saelke-Kellermann RA, Salomons GS, Schulze A, Surtees R, van der Knaap MS, Vasconcelos R, Verhoeven NM, Vilarinho L, Wilichowski E, Jakobs C: GAMT deficiency: features, treatment, and outcome in an inborn error of creatine synthesis. Neurology. 2006 Aug 8;67(3):480-4. Epub 2006 Jul 19. [16855203 ]
  6. Isbrandt D, von Figura K: Cloning and sequence analysis of human guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase cDNA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Dec 27;1264(3):265-7. [8547310 ]
  7. Ensenauer R, Thiel T, Schwab KO, Tacke U, Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, Schulze A, Hennig J, Lehnert W: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: differences of creatine uptake in human brain and muscle. Mol Genet Metab. 2004 Jul;82(3):208-13. [15234333 ]
  8. Yasuda M, Sugahara K, Zhang J, Ageta T, Nakayama K, Shuin T, Kodama H: Simultaneous determination of creatinine, creatine, and guanidinoacetic acid in human serum and urine using liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 1997 Nov 15;253(2):231-5. [9367508 ]
  9. Sijens PE, Reijngoud DJ, Soorani-Lunsing RJ, Oudkerk M, van Spronsen FJ: Cerebral 1H MR spectroscopy showing elevation of brain guanidinoacetate in argininosuccinate lyase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 May;88(1):100-2. Epub 2005 Dec 15. [16343968 ]
  10. Valongo C, Cardoso ML, Domingues P, Almeida L, Verhoeven N, Salomons G, Jakobs C, Vilarinho L: Age related reference values for urine creatine and guanidinoacetic acid concentration in children and adolescents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chim Acta. 2004 Oct;348(1-2):155-61. [15369749 ]
  11. Fingerhut R: Stable isotope dilution method for the determination of guanidinoacetic acid by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2003;17(7):717-22. [12661026 ]
  12. Schmidt A, Marescau B, Boehm EA, Renema WK, Peco R, Das A, Steinfeld R, Chan S, Wallis J, Davidoff M, Ullrich K, Waldschutz R, Heerschap A, De Deyn PP, Neubauer S, Isbrandt D: Severely altered guanidino compound levels, disturbed body weight homeostasis and impaired fertility in a mouse model of guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2004 May 1;13(9):905-21. Epub 2004 Mar 17. [15028668 ]
  13. Stockler S, Isbrandt D, Hanefeld F, Schmidt B, von Figura K: Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: the first inborn error of creatine metabolism in man. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 May;58(5):914-22. [8651275 ]
  14. Shirokane Y, Utsushikawa M, Nakajima M: A new enzymic determination of guanidinoacetic acid in urine. Clin Chem. 1987 Mar;33(3):394-7. [3815805 ]
  15. Mizutani N, Hayakawa C, Ohya Y, Watanabe K, Watanabe Y, Mori A: Guanidino compounds in hyperargininemia. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1987 Nov;153(3):197-205. [3433275 ]
  16. Schulze A, Ebinger F, Rating D, Mayatepek E: Improving treatment of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: reduction of guanidinoacetic acid in body fluids by arginine restriction and ornithine supplementation. Mol Genet Metab. 2001 Dec;74(4):413-9. [11749046 ]
  17. Stockler S, Holzbach U, Hanefeld F, Marquardt I, Helms G, Requart M, Hanicke W, Frahm J: Creatine deficiency in the brain: a new, treatable inborn error of metabolism. Pediatr Res. 1994 Sep;36(3):409-13. [7808840 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GAMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14353
Molecular Weight:
26317.925 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  4. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  5. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Hirayama A, Noronha-Dutra AA, Gordge MP, Neild GH, Hothersall JS: Inhibition of neutrophil superoxide production by uremic concentrations of guanidino compounds. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000 Apr;11(4):684-9. [10752527 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
L-proline transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Neutral amino acid/proton symporter. Has a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, it also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC36A1
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z2H8
Molecular Weight:
53075.045 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1500 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50021601
References
  1. Thondorf I, Voigt V, Schafer S, Gebauer S, Zebisch K, Laug L, Brandsch M: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses of substrates of the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (hPAT1). Bioorg Med Chem. 2011 Nov 1;19(21):6409-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.08.058. Epub 2011 Sep 5. [21955456 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Temperature-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor-activated non-selective cation channel involved in detection of pain and possibly also in cold perception and inner ear function (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:25855297). Has a central role in the pain response to endogenous inflammatory mediators and to a diverse array of volatile irritants, such as mustard oil, cinnamaldehyde, garlic and acrolein, an irritant from tears gas and vehicule exhaust fumes (PubMed:25389312, PubMed:20547126). Is also activated by menthol (in vitro)(PubMed:25389312). Acts also as a ionotropic cannabinoid receptor by being activated by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana (PubMed:25389312). May be a component for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of hair cells in inner ear, thereby participating in the perception of sounds. Probably operated by a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TRPA1
Uniprot ID:
O75762
Molecular Weight:
127499.88 Da
References
  1. Nilius B, Prenen J, Owsianik G: Irritating channels: the case of TRPA1. J Physiol. 2011 Apr 1;589(Pt 7):1543-9. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.200717. Epub 2010 Nov 15. [21078588 ]