Tmic
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Record Information
Version2.0
Creation Date2014-08-29 05:48:44 UTC
Update Date2014-12-24 20:26:41 UTC
Accession NumberT3D4167
Identification
Common NameSpermidine
ClassSmall Molecule
DescriptionSpermidine is a uremic toxin. Uremic toxins can be subdivided into three major groups based upon their chemical and physical characteristics: 1) small, water-soluble, non-protein-bound compounds, such as urea; 2) small, lipid-soluble and/or protein-bound compounds, such as the phenols and 3) larger so-called middle-molecules, such as beta2-microglobulin. Chronic exposure of uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Spermidine is a polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
Compound Type
  • Amine
  • Food Toxin
  • Metabolite
  • Natural Compound
  • Organic Compound
  • Uremic Toxin
Chemical Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym
1,5,10-Triazadecane
1,8-Diamino-4-azaoctane
4-Azaoctamethylenediamine
4-Azaoctane-1,8-diamine
Aminopropylbutandiamine
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-butane-diamine
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-diamino-butane
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-diaminobutane
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-4-aminobutylamine
N-(3-aminopropyl)butane-1,4-diamine
N-(4-Aminobutyl)-1,3-diaminopropane
N-(gamma-Aminopropyl)tetramethylenediamine
SPD
Spermidin
Chemical FormulaC7H19N3
Average Molecular Mass145.246 g/mol
Monoisotopic Mass145.158 g/mol
CAS Registry Number124-20-9
IUPAC Name(4-aminobutyl)(3-aminopropyl)amine
Traditional Namespermidine
SMILESNCCCCNCCCN
InChI IdentifierInChI=1S/C7H19N3/c8-4-1-2-6-10-7-3-5-9/h10H,1-9H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=ATHGHQPFGPMSJY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylamines. These are organic compounds containing a dialkylamine group, characterized by two alkyl groups bonded to the amino nitrogen.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic nitrogen compounds
ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
Sub ClassAmines
Direct ParentDialkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Biological Properties
StatusDetected and Not Quantified
OriginEndogenous
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Neuron
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033 map00270
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445 Not Available
ApplicationsNot Available
Biological Roles
Chemical RolesNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
AppearanceNot Available
Experimental Properties
PropertyValue
Melting Point< 25°C
Boiling PointNot Available
SolubilityNot Available
LogPNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility32.7 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.62ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS-0.65ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.68ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area64.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity44.97 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.8 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-5910000000-48794a2dc9d682aab28fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-066u-1910000000-9fe6c1c8e8f166270be1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00rf-1900000000-c88ed717e55f237cf01cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-6900000000-56396208515d9020bfebView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0uki-5920000000-4aac8aba8d9635a96f1cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-00rf-1900000000-f4b7d8b055a8d5025036View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-1be27daaf9f6d9e03752View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-05tf-0910000000-280a5c2a493fedd0e524View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-5910000000-48794a2dc9d682aab28fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066u-1910000000-9fe6c1c8e8f166270be1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00rf-1900000000-c88ed717e55f237cf01cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-6900000000-56396208515d9020bfebView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uki-5920000000-4aac8aba8d9635a96f1cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00rf-1900000000-f4b7d8b055a8d5025036View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-1900000000-1be27daaf9f6d9e03752View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00rf-1900000000-866eda2dc91354bf795bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0uki-3920000000-2165a698c4bf674e814bView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001r-9200000000-e6ccea992bf8aff10122View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dj-9800000000-02b200749ad6548a5872View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-c294fdb7876cfc47c089View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-d3055c2a8763c8034bd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-052b-0900000000-f08a2a9ba7333f5b725cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00b9-7900000000-062e21e4525351cbd0d4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-31b90f68c9fde4e03f60View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0920000000-28adf399f8ddd0affc22View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udj-0930000000-3ac88b6d5c40c65f1314View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-953c054969edecf62533View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00b9-7900000000-8b03c45141b38c718dacView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-1e157eec324aa34dd64eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-f2ca6698501cf6a406dfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9300000000-2f23967aa87f8e5f5bc1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-91aef1c8b5a2507a16e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-18cdaecf173b5d79902aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-f0b03de09cb13146e794View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0092-5900000000-4bd537f0811cc264f2cbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00di-9200000000-75eacba217a63f3b8847View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-8a77bd9436d55b064332View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004j-1900000000-300fe40eb32167464ab8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0729-9800000000-1a8be3c6776f3924c8b7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0abc-9000000000-6401e12d220b44018fdfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-79940496e89b73bb1682View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-3900000000-eb4eaf0bb3e88f274a1dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00du-9000000000-fe762fb3fcd81e27f9c7View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Toxicity Profile
Route of ExposureEndogenous, Ingestion, Dermal (contact)
Mechanism of ToxicityUremic toxins such as spermidine are actively transported into the kidneys via organic ion transporters (especially OAT3). Increased levels of uremic toxins can stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. This seems to be mediated by the direct binding or inhibition by uremic toxins of the enzyme NADPH oxidase (especially NOX4 which is abundant in the kidneys and heart) (2). Reactive oxygen species can induce several different DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) which are involved in the silencing of a protein known as KLOTHO. KLOTHO has been identified as having important roles in anti-aging, mineral metabolism, and vitamin D metabolism. A number of studies have indicated that KLOTHO mRNA and protein levels are reduced during acute or chronic kidney diseases in response to high local levels of reactive oxygen species (3).
MetabolismUremic toxins tend to accumulate in the blood either through dietary excess or through poor filtration by the kidneys. Most uremic toxins are metabolic waste products and are normally excreted in the urine or feces.
Toxicity ValuesNot Available
Lethal DoseNot Available
Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/SourcesNaturally produced by the body (endogenous).
Minimum Risk LevelNot Available
Health EffectsChronic exposure to uremic toxins can lead to a number of conditions including renal damage, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease.
SymptomsAs a uremic toxin, this compound can cause uremic syndrome. Uremic syndrome may affect any part of the body and can cause nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. It can also cause changes in mental status, such as confusion, reduced awareness, agitation, psychosis, seizures, and coma. Abnormal bleeding, such as bleeding spontaneously or profusely from a very minor injury can also occur. Heart problems, such as an irregular heartbeat, inflammation in the sac that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and increased pressure on the heart can be seen in patients with uremic syndrome. Shortness of breath from fluid buildup in the space between the lungs and the chest wall (pleural effusion) can also be present.
TreatmentKidney dialysis is usually needed to relieve the symptoms of uremic syndrome until normal kidney function can be restored.
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
DrugBank IDDB03566
HMDB IDHMDB01257
PubChem Compound ID1102
ChEMBL IDCHEMBL19612
ChemSpider ID1071
KEGG IDC00315
UniProt IDNot Available
OMIM ID
ChEBI ID16610
BioCyc IDSPERMIDINE
CTD IDNot Available
Stitch IDNot Available
PDB IDSPD
ACToR IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSpermidine
References
Synthesis Reference

Raymond J. Bergeron, Jr., “Methods and intermediates for the preparation of spermidine, homospermidine and norspermidine.” U.S. Patent US4505861, issued July, 1981.

MSDSLink
General References
  1. Duranton F, Cohen G, De Smet R, Rodriguez M, Jankowski J, Vanholder R, Argiles A: Normal and pathologic concentrations of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Jul;23(7):1258-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2011121175. Epub 2012 May 24. [22626821 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
  4. Venza M, Visalli M, Cicciu D, Teti D: Determination of polyamines in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001 Jun 5;757(1):111-7. [11419735 ]
  5. Uehara N, Shirakawa S, Uchino H, Saeki Y: Elevated contents of spermidine and spermine in the erythrocytes of cancer patients. Cancer. 1980 Jan 1;45(1):108-11. [7350997 ]
  6. Proctor MS, Fletcher HV Jr, Shukla JB, Rennert OM: Elevated spermidine and spermine levels in the blood of psoriasis patients. J Invest Dermatol. 1975 Oct;65(4):409-11. [1176793 ]
  7. Mirzoian PA, Promyslov MSh: [Contents of putrescine, spermidine and spermine in tissue of the human brain glial tumors]. Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1979 Sep-Oct;51(5):474-6. [516181 ]
  8. Chaisiri P, Harper ME, Blamey RW, Peeling WB, Griffiths K: Plasma spermidine concentrations in patients with tumours of the breast or prostate or testis. Clin Chim Acta. 1980 Jul 1;104(3):367-75. [6156039 ]
  9. El Baze P, Milano G, Verrando P, Renee N, Ortonne JP: Polyamine levels in normal human skin. A comparative study of pure epidermis, pure dermis, and suction blister fluid. Arch Dermatol Res. 1983;275(4):218-21. [6625645 ]
  10. Martinet N, Beninati S, Nigra TP, Folk JE: N1N8-bis(gamma-glutamyl)spermidine cross-linking in epidermal-cell envelopes. Comparison of cross-link levels in normal and psoriatic cell envelopes. Biochem J. 1990 Oct 15;271(2):305-8. [2241917 ]
  11. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [19212411 ]
Gene Regulation
Up-Regulated GenesNot Available
Down-Regulated GenesNot Available

Targets

General Function:
Thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity
Specific Function:
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
Gene Name:
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID:
Q16881
Molecular Weight:
70905.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  4. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  5. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Meana C, Bordallo J, Bordallo C, Suarez L, Cantabrana B, Sanchez M: Functional effects of polyamines via activation of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptors stably expressed in CHO cells. Pharmacol Rep. 2010 Jul-Aug;62(4):696-706. [20885010 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Meana C, Bordallo J, Bordallo C, Suarez L, Cantabrana B, Sanchez M: Functional effects of polyamines via activation of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptors stably expressed in CHO cells. Pharmacol Rep. 2010 Jul-Aug;62(4):696-706. [20885010 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular Weight:
28870.0 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.4 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA12
Uniprot ID:
O43570
Molecular Weight:
39450.615 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory44.1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA14
Uniprot ID:
Q9ULX7
Molecular Weight:
37667.37 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye. Contributes to intracellular pH regulation in the duodenal upper villous epithelium during proton-coupled peptide absorption. Stimulates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange activity of SLC26A6.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular Weight:
29245.895 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.11 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA3
Uniprot ID:
P07451
Molecular Weight:
29557.215 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory11.5 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular Weight:
35032.075 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory0.112 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Molecular Weight:
34750.21 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.22 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA5B
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2D0
Molecular Weight:
36433.43 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.44 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Its role in saliva is unknown.
Gene Name:
CA6
Uniprot ID:
P23280
Molecular Weight:
35366.615 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.41 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular Weight:
29658.235 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.23 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular Weight:
49697.36 Da
Binding/Activity Constants
TypeValueAssay TypeAssay Source
Inhibitory1.37 uMNot AvailableBindingDB 50009353
References
  1. Carta F, Temperini C, Innocenti A, Scozzafava A, Kaila K, Supuran CT: Polyamines inhibit carbonic anhydrases by anchoring to the zinc-coordinated water molecule. J Med Chem. 2010 Aug 12;53(15):5511-22. doi: 10.1021/jm1003667. [20590092 ]
  2. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  3. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Vitamin d binding
Specific Function:
May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.
Gene Name:
KL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UEF7
Molecular Weight:
116179.815 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Superoxide-generating nadph oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.Isoform 4: Involved in redox signaling in vascular cells. Constitutively and NADPH-dependently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Modulates the nuclear activation of ERK1/2 and the ELK1 transcription factor, and is capable of inducing nuclear DNA damage. Displays an increased activity relative to isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOX4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH5
Molecular Weight:
66930.995 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Schulz AM, Terne C, Jankowski V, Cohen G, Schaefer M, Boehringer F, Tepel M, Kunkel D, Zidek W, Jankowski J: Modulation of NADPH oxidase activity by known uraemic retention solutes. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug;44(8):802-11. doi: 10.1111/eci.12297. [25041433 ]
  2. Young GH, Wu VC: KLOTHO methylation is linked to uremic toxins and chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2012 Apr;81(7):611-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.461. [22419041 ]